Parkinson S Disease

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PARKINSON’S DISEASE
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Introduction
Parkinson’s disease can be described as a complex progressive neurodegenerative disorder
characterized by involuntary movements ranging from shaking, stiffness and challenges
maintaining balance, posture and coordination. The onset of the disease is rather gradual and tends
to worsen over time with patients eventually being unable to move, talk and in severe cases,
psychological, mental, cognitive and emotional changes (Kouli, Torsney, & Kuan, 2018).
Etiology
The cause behind the Parkinson’s disease is not quite well understood, however, there are
various theories and potential relationships that have formed through research that might reveal
some of the causes of the disease. One probable and widely accepted cause is linked to the
degeneration of the dopamine-secreting neurons. These neurons die or lose the ability to secrete
the neurotransmitter, dopamine. Studies have revealed that this generally tends to affect a region
of the brain known as the substantia niagra, which is a dopaminergic nucleus in the midbrain. This
region has a vital role in the modulation of motor functions, emotional limbic activity and cognitive
executive functions. Another potential cause of Parkinson’s is the exposure to certain toxins,
chemicals and even various diseases. These produce symptoms that are comparable to those of
Parkinson’s disease and the condition is referred to as secondary Parkinsonism. C …
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