Gateway Anatomy and Physiology 2 Complete Course Latest 2022 September (Full)

Gateway Anatomy and Physiology 2 Complete Course Latest 2022 September (Full)

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Assignment on
Gateway Anatomy and Physiology 2 Complete Course Latest 2022 September (Full)
From as Little as $13/Page

Module 1 Discussion

Important Reason to Study A&P

For some of you, you may be taking this course immediately after finishing an A&P I course. For others, it may have been some time since you have taken A&P I. As we review some topics from A&P I, discuss two reasons to study anatomy and physiology. Take a stand on what is probably the most important reason to study A&P, and why.

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 2 Discussion

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder that can have symptoms which include increased appetite, sluggishness, and increased sleepiness. SAD occurs most regularly during the winter months, and is more common in areas with long winter nights. Suggest a role for melatonin in SAD and a possible non-drug therapy.

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 3 Discussion

Echocardiogram

Please to go this site Links to an external site.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apikal4D.gif Links to an external site.) to watch an echocardiogram of real heart valves opening and closing. Also read the description below the video. Discuss why you think this kind of imaging might be helpful. What kinds of issues or anomalies might it be able to detect? What might it not be able to detect?

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 4 Discussion

Fatigue, Shortness of breath, and Swollen feet

An overweight patient comes to a clinic complaining of fatigue, swollen feet, and shortness of breath. She also admits that sometimes she feels that she cannot think clearly. She works at a local retail store, and she is on her feet all day. When she isn’t working, she doesn’t do any exercise. With her weight, she finds it hard to walk too much. Explain the strain she is putting on her vasculature and respiratory system, and explain what may be involved in this patient’s signs and symptoms.

 

 

 

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 5 Discussion

Lymphatic System versus the Previously-Discussed Circulatory System

Discuss the differences in the Lymphatic system versus the previously-discussed circulatory system. Explain two differences that may have surprised you, and give examples of why the lymphatic system functions this way.

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 6 Discussion

Fecal Transplants

Research fecal transplants. Describe how this works and why. Speculate on at least two possible issues this might help resolve.

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 7 Discussion

Bulimia

Jennifer is admitted to the hospital for bulimia. She is 36 years old. Her laboratory results are:

pH 7.48, pCO2 in the normal range, and total HCO3– higher than normal.

Is her acid-base balance acidosis or alkalosis, and is this metabolic or respiratory? Is there evidence of compensation? Propose the mechanism by which bulimia contributed to these lab results.

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 8 Discussion

Conception Difficulties

Stacey and Paul are having difficulty conceiving a child. Stacey ovulates every 28 days, and Paul’s sperm count appears normal. Research reasons why they may be having difficulty. Discuss a few different reasons, then focus on one reason that you think might be likely. Go into detail on what happens to reduce the likelihood for conception in this instance, and explain what might be done to increase the likelihood for conception.

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 1 Assignment

Writing Assignment:

Homeostasis is a key component of the human body. Research specific examples of changes that can trigger a feedback loop in homeostasis. Write about one specific example, explaining what type of feedback loop it is, the process that happens in that loop, and how this relates to homeostasis.  

Instructions on how to get started:

Your instructor has included a rubric for this assignment. The rubric is a set of criteria that your instructor will use to grade your assignment. Before submitting your assignment, you can use the Rubric to evaluate your own work and make sure your assignment fulfills your instructor’s requirements. You may view the rubric before or after the assignment is submitted by clicking on the rubric tab below.

You will write this assignment, and then upload it as a file.

To submitting through File Upload:

Choose submission type “Upload”

Drag and drop file into “Upload” box.

Or click “Upload File” box to browse.

Select your submission, once selected the “Submit” button will appear in the bottom right corner.

(If for any reason this doesn’t work, then you can submit through the text entry box.)

If submitting through Text Entry:

Choose submission type “Text”

Click “Start Entry” under Text Entry in box below.

Type out text submission.

Click “Save” in the bottom right corner of text box.

Once you click “Save” the “Submit” button will appear.

If ready to submit, click the “Submit” button in the bottom right text box.

If additional editing needs to be completed, click the “Edit” button again and it will bring up the previously saved work.

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 5 Assignment

Writing Assignment:

Select a specific disease or infection of your choice and research the immune system response. Detail how the disease or infection impacts the body. Explain the immune response and how it looks.

Instructions on how to get started:

Your instructor has included a rubric for this assignment. The rubric is a set of criteria that your instructor will use to grade your assignment. Before submitting your assignment, you can use the Rubric to evaluate your own work and make sure your assignment fulfills your instructor’s requirements. You may view the rubric before or after the assignment is submitted by clicking on the rubric tab below.

You will write this assignment, and then upload it as a file.

o submitting through File Upload:

Choose submission type “Upload”

Drag and drop file into “Upload” box.

Or click “Upload File” box to browse.

Select your submission, once selected the “Submit” button will appear in the bottom right corner.

 (If for any reason this doesn’t work, then you can submit through the text entry box.)

If submitting through Text Entry:

Choose submission type “Text”

Click “Start Entry” under Text Entry in box below.

Type out text submission.

Click “Save” in the bottom right corner of text box.

Once you click “Save” the “Submit” button will appear.

If ready to submit, click the “Submit” button in the bottom right text box.

If additional editing needs to be completed, click the “Edit” button again and it will bring up the previously saved work.

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 8 Assignment

Writing Assignment:

Pregnancy causes changes to nearly the entire body. Choose one of the body systems we studied previously. Research how pregnancy impacts and changes this system. Include physiological changes, and explain why you think these changes are beneficial to the process of pregnancy.

Instructions on how to get started:

Your instructor has included a rubric for this assignment. The rubric is a set of criteria that your instructor will use to grade your assignment. Before submitting your assignment, you can use the Rubric to evaluate your own work and make sure your assignment fulfills your instructor’s requirements. You may view the rubric before or after the assignment is submitted by clicking on the rubric tab below.

You will write this assignment, and then upload it as a file.

To submitting through File Upload:

Choose submission type “Upload”

Drag and drop file into “Upload” box.

Or click “Upload File” box to browse.

Select your submission, once selected the “Submit” button will appear in the bottom right corner.

 (If for any reason this doesn’t work, then you can submit through the text entry box.)

If submitting through Text Entry:

Choose submission type “Text”

Click “Start Entry” under Text Entry in box below.

Type out text submission.

Click “Save” in the bottom right corner of text box.

Once you click “Save” the “Submit” button will appear.

If ready to submit, click the “Submit” button in the bottom right text box.

If additional editing needs to be completed, click the “Edit” button again and it will bring up the previously saved work.

Modul

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 1 Quiz  

1In an x-ray film of the skeletal system, the dense tissue areas appear __________ because they __________ the x-rays; the less dense tissues appear __________ because they __________ the x-rays.

dark; do not absorb; light; absorb

light; do not absorb; dark; absorb

dark; absorb; light; do not absorb

light; absorb; dark; do not absorb

2A tissue has the following characteristics: abundant extracellular matrix, abundant collagen fibers, collagen fibers mainly parallel to each other. Which of the following injuries results in damage to this kind of tissue?

Tear in the cartilage of the knee

Broken femur bone

Bullet penetrating the abdominal wall

Tear in the tissue that attaches the gastrocnemius muscle to bone

3Which of the following best describes the effect that holding your breath has on blood pH?

Holding your breath decreases blood pH by increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.

Holding your breath increases blood pH by decreasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.

Holding your breath increases blood pH by increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.

Holding your breath decreases blood pH by decreasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.

4Viruses are composed primarily of proteins and nucleic acids. Which of the following elements could be used to track the fate of viral proteins to determine if they entered the cell?

Phosphate because proteins contain phosphate, but nucleic acids do not

Nitrogen because proteins contain nitrogen, but nucleic acids do not

Sulfur because proteins contain sulfur, but nucleic acids do not

Oxygen because proteins contain oxygen, but nucleic acids do not

5An unknown molecule was detected in a tissue sample. The molecule is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; appears to be a branching polymer; and is hydrophilic. This molecule is most likely a __________.

carbohydrate

nucleic acid

lipid

protein

6Metabolic water refers to the water molecules produced during normal cellular metabolism. Which types of metabolic reactions are important for the production of metabolic water?

Hydrolysis reactions

Reversible reactions

Dehydration reactions

Catabolic reactions

7A tissue sample has the following components: calcified matrix, collagen, and fibroblasts. Sandy has identified it as bone, but her instructor stated that was . Which statements below should her instructor use to explain the error?

Fibroblasts are only present in cartilage tissue.

Bone tissue would have osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes present.   

Calcified matrix is a characteristic of cartilage not bone tissue.

Bone tissue has elastin fibers, not collagen fibers.

8Which type of tissue contains cells called neurons?

Connective tissue

Muscle tissue

Nervous tissue

Epithelial tissue

Results for question 9.

9Which of the following is NOT an adhesive molecule found in the ground substance of connective tissue?

Chondroitin sulfate

Fibronectin

Osteonectin

Chondronectin

10Nicholas has been diagnosed with a condition resulting from inflammation of tissue associated with his lungs. Which statement best clarifies the condition?

Nicholas has inflammation of the cutaneous membrane associated with the lungs.

Nicholas has inflammation of the peritoneam, the synovial membrane associated with the lungs.

Nicholas has inflammation of the pleura, the serous membranes associated with the lungs.

Nicholas has inflammation of the mucous membranes associated with the lungs.

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 2 Quiz

1David has been feeling tired lately, and after having blood work completed, it shows elevated TSH, low iodine, and low thyroid hormone levels. Predict the possible cause from the choices below.

Too little information is given to determine the cause.

David could possibly have a thyroid tumor.

David could have a pituitary gland tumor.

David may have iodine deficiency that is causing his thyroid to produce too little thyroid hormone.

2Sympathetic neurons can serve as __________ stimuli for hormone release from certain endocrine organs.

autocrine

neural

paracrine

humoral

3If both ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and cortisol levels increase, which of the following would occur?

ACTH production is increased even more by positive feedback.

Aldosterone levels will increase.

High cortisol levels will begin to cause ACTH levels to decline.

High ACTH levels will begin to cause cortisol levels to decline.

4Which of the following statements regarding hormone transport and distribution is FALSE?

Plasma protein concentration has no influence on free hormone concentration.

Hormones can be transported free in the plasma or bound to plasma proteins.

Only free hormones can diffuse through capillary walls and bind to target tissues.

Hormones bind only to certain types of plasma proteins.

5A water-soluble hormone binds to its receptor on the plasma membrane. Arrange the events that follow in correct sequence.

   (1) Alpha subunit-GTP complex alters cell activity

 (2) GTP binds to the alpha subunit replacing GDP

 (3) G-protein subunits separate from the receptor

 (4) Alpha subunit separates from other two subunits

 (5) G-protein subunits bind to the receptor

5, 4, 2, 1, 3

4, 2, 1, 3, 5

5, 2, 3, 4, 1

3, 4, 1, 2, 5

6Thromboxane is a chemical mediator released by platelets. Thromboxane promotes the aggregation of platelets which results in platelet plug formation during hemostasis. Thromboxane would therefore be classified as a/an __________.

autocrine chemical messenger

paracrine chemical messenger

neurotransmitter

endorphin

7Emily is in labor with her first child. The amplitude-modulated system would show her oxytocin levels __________.

to have a moderate signal

to have a strong signal

too weak to measure

to have a weak signal

8All of the following are characteristics of the pituitary gland except

influences the secretion of other endocrine glands.

rests in the sphenoid bone.

located superior to the hypothalamus.

is regulated by the hypothalamus.

Results for question 9.

9After a meal, blood glucose levels rise and stimulate the release of insulin. Of which type of stimulation is this an example?

Hypothalamic

Neural

Hormonal

Humoral        

10See the image of the chemical messenger below. Select the correct description.

Secreted into the blood by specialized cells. Travels some distance to target tissues. Results in coordinated regulation of cell function.

Produced by a wide variety of tissues and secreted into extracellular fluid. Has a localized effect on nearby tissues.

Produced by neurons. Secreted into a synaptic cleft by presynaptic nerve terminals. Travels short distances. Influences postsynaptic cells.

Secreted by cells in a local area. Influences the activity of the same cell from which it was secreted.

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 2 Activity 1 Quiz

Question 1. ________________ is a network of cells called neurons that coordinate actions and transmit signals between different parts of the body.

  The nervous system

  The central nervous system

  The endocrine system

 Question 2. What are the two divisions of the nervous system?

  central nervous system

  peripheral nervous system

  spinal nervous system

 Question 3 The ________________  is/are an organ that makes and secretes hormones that perform a specific job.

  limbs

  stomach

  liver

  gland

 Question 4 Which are the major endocrine glands?

  thalamus

  hypothalamus

  pituitary

  thyroid

  parathyroid

  pineal

  thymus

  adrenal

  kidney

  pancreas

  ovaries

  testes

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 2 Activity 2 Quiz

Question 1 Match the glands to their target organs

T-Lymphocytes

Liver, Muscles, adipose tissue

Anterior pituitary

Brain

Skin, soft tissues, bone, mammary glands, uterus, thyroid, adrenal cortex, kidneys

All tissues, bones, kidneys, intestines

Bones, kidneys, intestines

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 2 The Endocrine System Final Assessment Quiz

Question 1 What is the endocrine system?

  A system that conveys messages to the brain

  A network of cells that makes the body move

  A network of glands and organs located throughout the body

  Gonads that produce sex hormones

 2. The ________________ is/are any substance that is produced by one tissue and carried by the bloodstream to another to affect physiological activity.

  Glands

  Hormones

  Testes

  cells

3. Which organ is not affected by the endocrine system?

  Limbs

  Brain

  Stomach

  Liver

4 Which parts or glands in the brain are not part of the endocrine system?

  Pituitary

  Hypothalamus

  Pineal

  Medulla oblongata

5. How does the nervous system coordinate actions and responses in our bodies?

  It is a control system of ductless glands

  It secretes hormones in the spine

  It does not affect physiological activity

  Affects all cells in the body

6. Select all endocrine controlled bodily functions

  Body temperature

  Growth and development

  Blood pressure and heart rate

  Blinking of the eyes

7. Which of the following is the function of the hypothalamus?

  It produces one hormone

  Links the endocrine to the circulatory system

  Can jumpstart the brain

  exerts neural control over the pituitary gland

8. The ________________ secretes the hormones that affect growth and reproduction.

  Thymus

  Parathyroid

  Pituitary

  Pineal

9. Which of the following organs are affected by the hormones produced by the gonads?

  Bones

  Skin

  Muscles

  Tissues

  All of these

 10. Which are the two glands covered under the adrenal gland?

  Adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla

  Adrenal gonad and cortisol

  Epinephrine and aldosterone

  Testes and ovaries

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 3 Quiz

1Why is it important to use an antibiotic other than ampicillin in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia?

Because antibiotics such as ampicillin cause the cells lining blood vessels to endocytose bacteria and deposit them in cardiac muscle tissue.

Because antibiotics such as ampicillin destroy the cell walls of bacteria which cause a toxin to be released that will destroy cardiac muscle cells.

Because antibiotics such as ampicillin are not effective in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia.

Because antibiotics such as ampicillin destroy the cell walls of cardiac muscle cells.          

2Which of the following pairs concerning action potentials in cardiac muscle is mismatched?

Opening of K  + channels – rapid repolarization

Closure of Na  + channels – early repolarization

Closing of Ca  2+ channels – plateau phase

Opening of Na  + channels – depolarization

3An extended period of time between the P wave and the QRS complex may indicate which of the following?

The signal is taking too long to get to the AV node.

Ventricular contraction is faster than usual.

Ventricular contraction is taking longer than usual.

The signal is traveling too quickly to the AV node.

4The heart skeleton is fibrous connective tissue that acts as an electrical barrier between the atria and ventricles. If this structure was not functional, which of the following conditions might occur?

Blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium

Increase in pericadial fluid in the pericardial space

Spread of ectopic stimuli from the atria to the ventricles

Occlusion of the coronary arteries

Match the function with the most appropriate category.

Match the function with the most appropriate category in the drop down.

5Erythrocytes clumping together

Immune function

6Monocytes become macrophages

Immune function

7Determining antigens on RBCs

Blood Grouping

8Making a differential WBC count

Diagnostic Blood Test

Results for question 9.

9Process initiated by platelets

Coagulation

10A red blood cell that is flowing through the aorta would pass through __________ heart valves before reaching the right ventricle.

2

1

3

4

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 3 The Circulatory System Final Assessment Quiz

1. Which of these does not include the “formed elements” of the blood?

  Erythrocytes

  Plasma

  Leukocytes

  Platelets

2. When a RBC’s cell membrane ruptures, releasing its hemoglobin, this is called

  Hemolysis

  Hypoxia

  Hemostasis

  Hemophilia

3. Which of the following is not a characteristic of platelets?

  Are cell fragments

  Non-motile

  No nucleus

  Involved in hemostasis

4. When RBCs transport their hemoglobin to the lungs, the oxygen binds to?

  The globin

  The heme group

  The iron molecule in the center

  The cell membrane

5. Which of the following would contain deoxygenated blood?

  Pulmonary trunk

  Aorta

  Coronary arteries

  Pulmonary vein

6. Which layer of the heart is actually responsible for doing the work of contraction?

  Epicardium

  Endocardium

  Myocardium

  Pericardium

7. This valve regulates the passage of blood from the right atrium to the right ventricle:

  Bicuspid valve

  Pulmonary valve

  Tricuspid valve

  Semilunar valve

8. How many HEART VALVES are there in our Heart?

  3

  5

  4

  6

 9. Which of the following is true of systemic veins but not of arteries?

  Carries blood away from the heart

  Have thicker walls

  Contain about 13% of the body’s total blood volume

  Have a larger lumen

10. Which of these is a means of increasing venous return?

  The respiratory pump

  The pressure gradient

  The skeletal muscle pump

  All of the above

 

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 3 Label the Heart Diagram Quiz

Question 1Label #1

Heart1.jpg

  Heart Valves

  Left Ventricle

  Right Atria

  Atria

 Question 2Label #2

Heart1-1.jpg

  Left Ventricle

  Right Atria

  Atria

  Heart Valves

 Question 3 Label #3

Heart1-2.jpg

  Heart Valves

  Right Atria

  Left Ventricle

  Atria

 Question 4Label #4

Heart1-3.jpg

  Atria

  Left Ventricle

  Right Atria

  Heart Valves

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 3 Circulatory System Activity 1 Quiz

1. Select the appropriate option.

A means of transport

Blood

A path to travel on

Blood Vessels

The driving force

Heart

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 4 The Respiratory System Final Assessment Quiz

Question 11. The trachea divided into two small tubes at the site of the lungs are called

  Bronchi

  Micro trachea

  Lobes

  Vessels

2. Which one of the followings is correct regarding larynx? 

 It prevents foreign objects from entering the trachea

  It houses the vocal cords

  It is an organ made of cartilage and connects the pharynx to the trachea

  All are correct

3. Which of the following is NOT a function of the respiratory system?

  Regulate blood pH

  Helps in gaseous exchange

  Protection against blood loss

  Contains receptors for the sense of smell

 Question 4 Which activity takes place in the lungs?

  Food is digested.

  Oxygen is exchanged with carbon dioxide

  Liquid waste is filtered from blood

  Carry the message to different parts

 Question 55. Which organ is made up of carrying tubes and tiny sacs?

  The brain

  The lungs

  The kidney

  The diaphragm

 6. How many cartilages are present in the larynx?

  Seven

  Eight

  Nine

  Ten

 7. Which structure prevents the collapse of the trachea?

  Bones

  Cartilage

  Tendon

  None of above

 8. At which particular site of the lung does a gaseous exchange takes place?

  Bronchi

  Trachea

  Type I cell

  Alveoli

9. Identify the different organs acting as part of the lower respiratory system.

  Nose, Bronchi

  Trachea, Alveoli

  Pharynx, Nose

  Pharynx, Alveoli

10. The ventilation of the lung means

  External respiration

  Internal respiration

  Breathing

  Respiration

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 4 Respiratory Sequence Activity Quiz

Question 1 Identify the correct sequence of the parts of the respiratory system-

1st

Nostril

2nd

Pharynx

3rd

Larynx

4th

Trachea

5th

Bronchi

6th

Bronchioles

7th

Alveoli

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 4 Respiratory Organ Activity 1 Quiz

Question 1Label #1

Slide5.png

  Lung

  Diaphragm

  Trachea

  Bronchi

 Question 2Label #2

Slide5-1.png

  Trachea

  Diaphragm

  Bronchi

  Lung

 Question 3Label #3

Slide5-2.png

  Bronchi

  Trachea

  Lung

  Diaphragm

 Question 4Label #4

Slide5-3.png

  Lung

  Diaphragm

  Trachea

  Bronchi

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 4 The Respiratory System Activity 1 Quiz

1 Breathing and respiration are the same.

  True

  False

2. The primary function of the respiratory system is the exchange of gases and the production of energy for various activities in the body.

  True

  False

 Question 3 Lungs exist in pairs and the heart lies on the right side of the lung.

  True

  False

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 4 Quiz

1Surfactant facilitates alveolar ventilation by

decreasing the surface tension between water molecules on the lining of the alveoli.

increasing the surface tension between fluid and the alveoli.

attracting water to the alveolar surface.

decreasing thoracic compliance.

2Which of the following statements concerning the lungs and the pleura is true?

The pleural fluid assists in gas exchange.

The space between the visceral and parietal pleurae is called the mediastinum.

Each lung is suspended in a separate pleural cavity.

Parietal pleura covers the surface of each lung.

3Which of the following statements concerning the larynx is correct?

Unlike other portions of the larynx, the epiglottis consists of some bony tissue.

The larynx contains four unpaired cartilages.

The inferior laryngeal cartilage is the thyroid cartilage.

When the glottis closes, air is prevented from leaving the lungs.

4If a person develops high blood pressure, one of the compensatory mechanisms that comes into play is the fluid shift mechanism. This mechanism causes

increased filtration in the kidney, thereby increasing urine output.

water to shift from the capillaries into the interstitial spaces.

water to shift from inside cells into the extracellular fluid.

water to shift from the interstitial space into the capillaries.

5From largest to smallest, the correct sequence for the following passageways is

alveoli, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, bronchi.

bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, bronchi, alveoli

bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveoli.

bronchi, bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, alveoli.

See the process below.

6Match the process for #1 in the drop down.

Oxygen diffuses out of the arterial ends of tissue capillaries, and CO2 diffuses out of the tissue because of differences in partial pressures

7Match the process for #2 in the drop down.

As a result of diffusion at the venous ends of pulmonary capillaries, the PO2 in the blood is equal to the PO2 in the alveoli, and the PCO2 in the blood is equal to the PCO2 in the alveoli

8Match the process for #3 in the drop down.

The PO2 of blood in the pulmonary veins is less than in the pulmonary capillaries because of mixing with deoxygenated blood from veins draining the bronchi and bronchioles

Results for question 9.

9Match the process for #4 in the drop down.

Oxygen diffuses out of the arterial ends of tissue capillaries, and CO2 diffuses out of the tissue because of differences in partial pressures

10Match the process for #5 in the drop down.

As a result of diffusion at the venous ends of tissue capillaries, the PO2 in the blood is equal to the PO2 in the tissue, and PCO2 in the blood is equal to the PCO2 in the tissue

 

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 5 Quiz

1Lymph from which of the following area of the body will pass through the thoracic duct before entering the bloodstream?

Right ring finger

Right hip

Right shoulder

None of the choices are correct.

2A cell has engulfed a substance from the extracellular material and has migrated to a lymph node to interact with a helper T cell. Which of the following statements best describes this cell?

This is an antigen-presenting cell that interacts with the helper T cell through an MHC class II molecule.

This is a cytotoxic T cell that interacts with the helper T cell through an MHC class I molecule.

This is a cytotoxic T cell that interacts with the helper T cell through an MHC class II molecule.

This is an antigen-presenting cell that interacts with the helper T cell through an MHC class I molecule.

3Which of the following statements concerning immunity is correct?

All of the choices are correct.

Adaptive immunity demonstrates specificity, which means that lymphocytes only destroy viruses and ignore all other types of pathogens.

Adaptive immunity demonstrates memory, meaning each lymphocyte responds to a particular pathogen, but responds similarly with each infection.

Adaptive immunity responses to pathogens improves over time due to generation of memory, which includes an increase in the number of lymphocytes that respond faster than during the original infection.  

4Which is the proper order of events in cell-mediated immunity?

   (1) Cloning of cytotoxic T cells and memory T cells

 (2) Antigen presented to T lymphocyte

 (3) Activation of T lymphocytes

 (4) Cytotoxic T cells attack target cells

1, 4, 2, 3

3, 2, 4, 1

2, 3, 4, 1

2, 3, 1, 4

See the image below.

5Match #1 with the process.

Some capillaries empty into the splenic cords. Blood percolates through the splenic cords and passes through the walls of the venous sinuses.

6Match #2 with the process.

A few capillaries directly connect to a venous sinus.

7Match #3 with the process.

Some capillaries empty into the splenic cords. Blood percolates through the splenic cords and passes through the walls of the venous sinuses.

8Match #4 with the process.

An arteriole enters a lymphatic nodule and divides.

Results for question 9.

9Match #5 with the process.

Branches from the trabecular arteries are surrounded by periarterial lymphatic sheaths.

10Match #6 with the process.

A few capillaries directly connect to a venous sinus.

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 6 The Digestive System Final Assessment Quiz

1. Where does most of the digestive process take place?

  Small intestine

  Large intestine

  Stomach

  All of the above

 Question 2 The esophagus leads to the ________________.

  Liver

  Intestines

  Pancreas

  Stomach

 Question 3. The following is the main energy source for the body-

  Vitamin and carbohydrate

  Vitamin and protein

  Lipids and carbohydrate

  Lipids and protein

 Question 4 Name the small bag like pouch which lies in the liver.

  Hepatic lobule

  Parotid

  Gall bladder

  All of the above

Question 5 Find the group sharing similarity-

  Liver, stomach, gall bladder

  Liver, pancreases, parotid

  Stomach, esophagus, parotid

  Liver, pancrease, salivary gland

6. ________________ help the small intestine to increase the area of absorption of digested food.

  Mucus

  Intestinal wall

  Villi

  Cilia

7. This is the hormone produced by the pancreas which helps to regulate blood sugar level.

  Glucose

  Glycogen

  Thyroxin

  Insulin

8. The stomach is the site for the absorption of ________________.

  Glucose and lipid

  Alcohol and trypsin

  Aspirin and trypsin

  Alcohol and aspirin

 9. Which chemical is released by the pancreas into the small intestine to neutralize the acid of the stomach?

  Acetic acid

  Carbonic acid

  Bicarbonate

  Lactic acid

10. Name the enzyme that helps to digest the fat in the small intestine.

  Amylase

  Trypsin

  Both amylase and trypsin

  Lipase

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 6 The Digestive System Activity 2 Quiz

1. The alimentary canal is composed of ________________ and ________________.

  a chemical process

  the mouth buccal / cavity

  digestive organs

  digestive glands

  the small intestine

2. The breaking of food into simpler forms is by a mechanical process followed by a

  small intestine

  digestive organ

  chemical process

  digestive gland

  mouth / buccal cavity

3. The digestion of food starts in the ________________ and completes in the ________________.

  digestive organs

  digestive glands

  chemical process

  small intestine

  mouth / buccal cavity

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 6 The Digestive System Activity 1 Quiz

1. The breakdown of complex food into a simpler absorbable form is called ________________.

  Digestion

  Excretion

  Respiration

  Elimination

 2. A simpler form of a protein is a/an ________________ .

  Lymphocyte

  Digestion

  RBC

  Amino Acid

3. The anterior opening of the alimentary canal is the ________________ and the posterior opening is the ________________.

  Amino Acid , Digestion

  Amino Acid , Mouth

  Mouth , Anus

  Anus, Digestion

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 6 Quiz

1Which of the following minerals is mismatched with its function?

Cobalt – erythrocyte production

Calcium – bone formation

Zinc – hemoglobin synthesis

Potassium – muscle and nerve function

2There is a need for glucose in the body. Which of the following reactions will yield glucose directly?

Glycolysis

Glycogenolysis

Beta oxidation

Deamination

3Which of the following components of saliva is mismatched with its function?

Salivary amylase – begins protein digestion

IgA – prevents infection

Mucin – lubricant      

Bicarbonate – neutralizes acid

4Which of the following does NOT illustrate digestion?

Fat → fatty acids and glycerol

Protein → amino acids

CO  2 and H  2O → carbohydrates

Polysaccharides → disaccharides

5During periods of fasting, why is fat said to have a protein-sparing effect?

The body must have an adequate protein intake in order to absorb and metabolize fats.

The body oxidizes its spare protein before it depletes its fat reserves.         

The body must have an adequate fat intake in order to absorb and metabolize proteins.

The body does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first.

See the process below.

6Match A in the drop down.

ATP Production: The energy released ruing catabolism can be used to synthesize ATP.

7Match B in the drop down.

8Match C in the drop down.

Results for question 9.

9Match D in the drop down.

10George has to have his gallbladder removed. His friend told him he can no longer eat fats because he will no longer produce bile. Is this an accurate description of George’s future diet?

Yes; the gallbladder is the organ that produces bile.

No; bile is involved in protein digestion only.

No; the gallbladder only stores the bile that is produced by the liver.

Yes; bile must first be stored in the gallbladder before it is functional.

See the image below.

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 7 The Urinary System Final Assessment Quiz

Question 11. An organ or structure that is not a component of the urinary system is:

  urethra

  urinary bladder

  ureter

  adrenal gland

  kidney

 Question 2 The kidneys:

  help regulate blood volume

  help control blood pressure

  help control PH

  all of the above are correct

3. All of the following belong to the urinary system except the:

 urethra

  ureter

  bladder

  prostate

4. The urinary system is the principal system responsible for

  the removal of carbon dioxide

  water and electrolyte balance

  excretion of toxic nitrogenous compounds

  A and B

  B and C

5. The structure that connects a kidney to the urinary bladder is the

  ureter

  urethra

  renal pelvis

  collecting duct

6. What portion of the nephron extends into the medulla?

  nephron loop

  proximal convoluted tubule

  distal convoluted tubule

  papillary duct

 7. The functional unit of the kidney is called a

  glomerulus

  nephron

  corpuscle

  calyx

8. Which of the following statements concerning the kidneys is false?

  they are retroperitoneal

  they each contain 8 to 15 renal pyramids

  they each have a distinct renal cortex and renal medulla region

  they are positioned between the third and fifth lumbar

9. Which of the following is the correct sequence in which urine flows through the kidney toward the urinary bladder?

  renal pelvis, major calyx, minor calyx, papillary duct, ureter

  papillary duct, minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis, ureter

  minor calyx, major calyx, papillary duct, renal pelvis, ureter

  papillary duct, major calyx, minor calyx, ureter, renal pelvis

 10. Which of the following statements concerning the ureters is false?

  the mucosa of each ureter is composed of transitional epithelium

  they are composed of three tunics

  muscular peristaltic waves move urine through the ureters

  they are located within the peritoneal cavity

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 7 The Urinary System Activity 2 Quiz

Question 1

Label #1.

slide7.JPG

  Cortex

  Medulla

  Ureter

  Adrenal Gland

  Renal Vein

  Renal Artery

 Question 2

Label #2.

slide7-1.JPG

  Renal Vein

  Cortex

  Ureter

  Renal Artery

  Adrenal Gland

  Medulla

 Question 3Label #3.

slide7-2.JPG

  Renal Artery

  Cortex

  Renal Vein

  Ureter

  Medulla

  Adrenal Gland

 Question 4Label #4.

slide7-3.JPG

  Cortex

  Renal Vein

  Medulla

  Renal Artery

  Ureter

  Adrenal Gland

 Question 5Label #5.

slide7-4.JPG

  Ureter

  Renal Artery

  Adrenal Gland

  Medulla

  Cortex

  Renal Vein

 Question 6Label #6.

slide7-5.JPG

  Adrenal Gland

  Renal Vein

  Cortex

  Ureter

  Medulla

  Renal Artery

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 7 The Urinary System Activity 1 Quiz

1. The left kidney is located at about the T12 to L3 vertebrae.

  True

  False

 2. Each kidney weighs about 125–175 g in females and 115–155 g in males

  True

  False

3. Right is upper due to slight displacement by the liver.

  True

  False

 4. The renal hilum is the only entry site for structures servicing the kidneys.

  True

  False

5. The kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from blood.

  True

  False

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 7 Quiz

1If the H   + concentration in the blood increases, bicarbonate ions act as buffers by

combining with Cl  −.

releasing H  + into the plasma.

dissociating into H+ and CO  3  −.

removing excess H  + from the plasma.         

2Which of the following is not a function of the carbonic acid/bicarbonate system?

Regulating pH changes of the blood during exercise.

Regulation of blood pH in coordination with the respiratory system.

Regulation of the pH of the intracellular environment.

Regulation of blood pH during elevated fat metabolism.

3 Urine is prevented from flowing back into the ureters from the bladder by __________.

the internal urethral sphincter

the ureteral sphincters

compression of the ureteral openings

the external urethral sphincter

4Once alkalosis has occurred, which of the following would you expect to happen?

A plasma pH less than 7.40

Increased respiratory rate      

Increased renal reabsorption of bicarbonate ions

Retention of H  + by the kidney

See the image below.

5Match A with the function in the drop down.

6Match B with the function in the drop down.

filters the blood

7Match C with the function in the drop down.

8Match D with the function in the drop down.

9Match E with the function in the drop down.

10Which of the following regulatory mechanisms would be stimulated as a result of the increased osmolality that results from a Na   + level of 152 mEq/L?

An increased release of ADH

An increase in the secretion of aldosterone

An increase in renin production

Increased urine output          

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 8 Quiz

1Which of the following is involved in stimulating milk letdown?

Increased progesterone levels

Increased estrogen levels      

Secretion of a small amount of milk

Mechanical stimulation of the breasts that cause release of oxytocin

2Which of the following explains the neural mechanism of an erection?

It is a somaticreflex mediated predominantly by sympathetic nerve fibers.

It is anautonomic reflex mediated predominantly by sympathetic nerve fibers.

It is anautonomic reflex mediated predominantly by parasympathetic nerve fibers.

It is a somaticreflex mediated predominantly by parasympathetic nerve fibers.

3Arm and legs buds appear at about 28 days from

neural crestcells.

the coelom.

somitomeres.

apical ectodermalridges.

4Which of the following statements does not correctly contrast the female and male reproductive systems?

The male reproductive system produces gametes from puberty until death of the individual; the female reproductive system normally ceases gamete production during middle age.

The male reproductive system produces and stores gametes, whereas the female reproductive system only stores gametes.

The female reproductive system produces secretions to nourish the neonate; the male reproductive system does not.

All of the statements are correct.

5Which of the following is derived from endoderm?

Muscle

Epidermis of the skin

Brain

Mucosa of the digestive tract

6Which of the following major events of prenatal development happens first?

The body is covered with lanugo.

The central nervous system begins to form.

one calcification begins.

The eyes are fully open.        

See the phases below.

7Match A in the drop down.

8Match B in the drop down.

9Match C in the drop down.

10Match D in the drop down.

11Match E in the drop down.

 

Anatomy and Physiology 2 ACE

Module 8 Final Exam Quiz

1As parturition nears, the levels of progesterone __________ and the levels of estrogen __________.

increase; increase

decrease; increase

decrease; decrease

increase; decrease

2Considering the following events in the nuclear receptor model, identify which of these events occurs in the nucleus.

   (1) Hormone receptor complex binds to DNA.

 (2) Messenger RNA directs synthesis of specific proteins.

 (3) Hormone binds to receptors in the nucleus (sometimes in the cytoplasm).

 (4) Messenger RNA synthesis is activated.

 (5) Synthesized proteins produce the response of the cell.

1, 3, 4

3, 4, 5

1, 3, 5

1, 2, 3

3Oversecretion of aldosterone causes

decreased reabsorption of Na  + by the kidney.

increased reabsorption of phosphate ions by the kidney.

decreased secretion of Ca  2+ by the kidney.

increased secretion of K  + by the kidney.

4See the image below. Select the function.

Transports O2 and CO2.

Produces antibodies and other chemicals responsible for destroying microorganisms; contributes to allergic reactions, graft rejection, tumor control, and regulation of the immune system.

Forms platelet plugs; releases chemicals necessary for blood clotting.

Phagocytic cell in the blood; leaves the blood and becomes a macrophage, which phagocytizes bacteria, dead cells, cell fragments, and other debris within tissues.

5The highest level of exercise that can be performed without causing a significant change in blood pH is called the __________.

Hering-Breuer reflex

anaerobic threshold

aerobic threshold

lactate tolerance level

6In glomerulonephritis, proteins, and white blood cells enter the filtrate resulting in

increased urine output.

increased secretion of Na  +.

increased reabsorption of water.       

increased reabsorption of Na  +.

7Select the statement that best describes the pulmonary circulation.

System of blood vessels that carries blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs and back to the left atrium of the heart

Microscopic blood vessels that allow for the exchange of nutrients in the tissues

System of blood vessels that carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the right atrium of the heart

System of blood vessels that a carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body

8If 5 reproductive cells divide by meiosis, the total number of gametes produced in a male would be __________. The total number of gametes produced in a female would be __________.

20; 20

10; 5

20; 5

20; 10

Results for question 9.

9Which of the following veins is NOT involved in draining blood from the arm?

Median cubital vein

Brachial vein

Basilic vein

Cephalic vein

See the processes in the image below.

10Match 1 in the drop down.

11Match 2 in the drop down.

12Match 3 in the drop down.

13Match 4 in the drop down.

14Match 5 in the drop down.

15Blood glucose concentration rises after a meal and stimulates the pancreas to release the hormone insulin. Insulin travels in the blood and stimulates the uptake of glucose by body cells from the bloodstream, thus reducing blood glucose concentration. This is an example of _________.

positive feedback

integration control

negative feedback

dynamic equilibrium

In the image below, the sodium chloride molecule breaks apart in water.

16Match A in the drop down.

17Match B in the drop down.

18Match C in the drop down.

Chloride ion

19Match D in the drop down.

Water molecule

20The entire process is called:

Dissociation

21In the process of tissue repair, which of the events listed below occurs last?

Granulation tissue develops.

A scab forms to seal the wound.

The wound fills with blood and a clot forms.

An inflammatory response occurs.

Match the appropriate body fluid percentage.

22Match A in the drop down.

23Match B in the drop down.

24Match C in the drop down.

25Match D in the drop down.

26Match E in the drop down.

27Match F in the drop down.

28See the image below. Select the function.

Produces antibodies and other chemicals responsible for destroying microorganisms; contributes to allergic reactions, graft rejection, tumor control, and regulation of the immune system.

Transports O2 and CO2.

Forms platelet plugs; releases chemicals necessary for blood clotting.

Phagocytic cell in the blood; leaves the blood and becomes a macrophage, which phagocytizes bacteria, dead cells, cell fragments, and other debris within tissues.

See the image below.

29Match A in the drop down.

Hypothalamus

Results for question 30.

30Match B in the drop down.