Electrical Engineering formal lab report
How to writelab report:
Example of Lab Report:
The Lab that is supposed to be turned into a full report of shi 5-6 pages:
When working in the laboratory an Engineer or Scientist records day-to-day progress in a logbook.
Once the experiment or series of experiments is complete however, a Formal Report for publication
is produced. For Engineers and Scientists, communicating their results is as important as getting
them in the first place because most of the work they do involves collaboration with other people.
Writing reports is an important skill for you to develop to help you during your degree, and later in
You are required to submit 2 Formal Laboratory Reports, one on each of the due dates shown above.
Report 1: You can choose any experiment conducted in Semester 1
Report 2: From Semester 2 AND your experiment must relate to a different module to the one you
chose for the first report.
All reports must be typed; graphs and figures should be produced electronically.
All reports should be submitted electronically via Blackboard. The appropriate link and instructions
for doing this can be found in the Coursework folder on Blackboard.
You must submit your report by 12:00 noon on the due date. If you are unable to complete the
work on time due to illness or severe problems, you must ask the Student Office for an extension
before the due date. Reports submitted after the due date and time will be subject to the standard
late penalties. Information about late submission penalties can be found in the Coursework folder
on Blackboard. Reports submitted after 12:00 noon on the due date will count as 1 day late. Please
note that it is your responsibility to keep back-up copies of your work as necessary. Computer failure
and corrupt disks are not allowable excuses for deadline extension.
The format of a formal laboratory report is almost standard throughout the world. The titles of the
sections may vary a little, but the required content does not. You can find an abundance of websites
that will give you tips on how to write a report. By searching for articles on the internet related to
writing lab reports and scientific papers you will find much information on the topic. The Formal
Report is typically made up of the following sections, although as mentioned above, each case may
(iii) Introduction (to include background information, context etc.)
(v) Methodology Materials, Methods and/or Description of Apparatus and/or Experimental
You may also find useful guidance in:
Kircup, Les, (1994). “Experimental Method”, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0471335797, Hartley Library
catalogue number QC 39 KIR
Barrass, Robert, (1978). Scientists must write, Chapman & Hall, ISBN 0412154307, Hartley Library
catalogue number T11 BAR
There is no fixed length for the report. It should be long enough to contain all the necessary
information and to make clear what you have done and what you have concluded. On the other
hand, it should be concise enough to contain no unnecessary or irrelevant information. As a general
guide about 6-10 pages in total is usually about right for a typical undergraduate experiment,
although this will clearly vary from experiment to experiment
The marking criteria will be the following:
Abstract 10% Write a summary of the report aimed at a non-
technical audience. This should briefly set out
the aims and objectives of the experiment
together with the outcome and conclusions.
Note that the emphasis is on writing in a style
that a lay person would be able to understand.
Marks are awarded based on a clear and
concise abstract in the appropriate tone. The
abstract clearly outlines the protocol, results
and conclusions made. Good use of English
language and grammar.
Introduction, Theory and Research 10% A well-presented introduction that has
reference to the practical along with reference
to existing research relevant to the practical
like reasons why this experiment may be
carried out in a research context. The theory
should be included and referenced.
It is also highly encouraged that the research
based around the theory of the experiment
should be explored to suggest how and why
this type of experiment and the fundamental
science behind it is needed in our modern-day
Aims clearly indicated these may be under an
Marks are awarded based on the how well the
introduction is written in an appropriate tone
and uses good English language and grammar.
In-text citations have been with references
being from a variety of sources. For higher
marks the student has evaluated other
experiments that would allow you to reach the
same end point. The student will have also
considered errors and potential issues to look
out for when conducting this type of
Methodology 10% The methodology should be clear and concise
the methodology can be written either as a
series of bullet points or in prose. An
equipment list is present. Good use of English
language and grammar. The methodology
would allow a lay person to repeat the
experiment without hindrance. Risk
You should double check when writing this
section: Is it obvious what you have done? Are
things described in the right order? Does it
make sense? Is it written in an objective way? Is
it grammatically, correct? Has it been spell-
Results 30% Results are presented in a suitable format
(tables and graphs) Tables and graphs are
labelled. Any calculations used are clearly
explained and presented in a suitable format.
Any extrapolation of the results is clearly
Discussion and Conclusion 30% The results should clearly be reviewed and
analysed in the discussion section. Any
anomalies or trends have been highlighted and
the reason that particular outcome has
occurred discussed. Any potential error in the
experiment has been highlighted and an
explanation to how this error has been/could
be reduced is present. High marks are awarded
to the students who offer additional
information about the practical including way
to develop/improve the experiment if it was to
be carried out again.
Are all your conclusions justified by your
findings? Are the limitations of the experiment
explained? Are any improvements to the
experiment realistic? Is the error analysis
References, Quality of Report writing and
References: In-text citations are present.
Appropriate references used. A reference
section at the end of the report exists and the
School of Engineerings referencing system
This includes the standard of the English
grammar and punctuation, the quality of
diagrams and the degree to which the report is
well structured, enabling a reader to
understand what you have done and why.
Is the information arranged into suitable
sections? Are the sections numbered and do
they have appropriate titles? Does each figure,
graph and table have a title? Does each figure,
graph, table, and equation have a number?