2022 Mary Ann S. Saunders. Do not copy, share, or upload to the internet. All rights reserved. updated 12 March 2022
You may do this assignment by yourself, or you may do it with your research team. Its your
choice. If you do it as a research team, please submit only one paper.
If you decide to work independently, the first page of your paper should include a footnote that reads
something like this: I would like to thank [name of your former collaborator], who I worked with in
developing earlier versions of this research.
If you are going to work independently, please let me know by email by Thursday, April 7. I need
this information in order to set up online submissions on Canvas.
Submission: Please submit on Canvas by 11:59 pm, Tuesday, April 12.
12 point serif font (e.g. Times New Roman). Double spaced. Include your name(s).
Please use MLA or APA guidelines to cite sources and produce your reference page:
N.B. Look at and USE these citation resources. Choose either MLA or APA and follow it EXACTLY,
right down to the punctuation. Good scholars follow standard citation practices, and they do so
consistently. Papers that fail to do so will lose 5%.
This assignment provides you with an opportunity to join the scholarly conversation in the field of
transgender studies. It builds directly from the research proposal and presentation you have already
done, completing the program of research you have been working on over the past few weeks.
As with your proposal, give your research paper a title which includes a major abstraction and refers
to your research site. It can be the same title as on your proposal, or you may revise it if necessary.
In your introductory paragraphs, remember to include everything listed below. (Please especially
note the last bullet in this list.)
Your main concern/focus and relevant abstraction(s) (particularly prestige abstractions).
The current state of knowledge, as reported by other researchers.
A knowledge deficit (the limits of existing knowledge), as you understand it (based on the
research articles you have consulted).
Your research question(s) that will address this knowledge deficit.
The method you will use to carry out your research.
The research site (or sites) where you will pursue your research question.
Your major research claim or claims. What has your research found out that isnt covered by
your state of knowledge?
A statement about your subject position as a researcher. For more about this, see the section
called Researcher Subject Position below.
Structure of your paper:
To some degree, you need to determine a structure appropriate to your paper (particularly the
body). Keep in mind that that we have encountered some structural diversity in the scholarship
weve read. What sort of structure seems best suited to the kind of research you are doing? What
2022 Mary Ann S. Saunders. Do not copy, share, or upload to the internet. All rights reserved. updated 12 March 2022
will work best to report your results?
If you wish, and it works for your topic, you may use the IMRD structure outlined in Section 13D
(pp. 300304 in the print edition) of Academic Writing.
If you have used open and axial coding to analyze your research sites, it may be helpful to
organize the body of your paper by the themes you have identified, using the themes
themselves as headers.
Throughout your paper, remember to include:
A mix of abstractions and details that allows your reader to see the reasoning behind your
analysis and discussion. Be sure to return to your opening abstractions from time to time.
In your concluding paragraphs, remember to:
Confirm the main point of the essay, and the knowledge deficit it has addressed.
Return readers to the most important abstractions (the ones which began the essay).
Try to refer to the papers own limitations.
Try to gesture towards the future, towards knowledge-creation that is still to come.
Do not highlight your abstractions.
Do not include the summaries you wrote for the annotated bibliography.
All sources, including your research sites (data sources), need to be included in the
bibliography. There are lots of good instructions on how to cite many different kinds of sources
in the citation resources Ive linked you to above.
In MLA style the list of sources is called Works Cited. In APA style its called References. This is
what you type at the top of your list. (There are no other options: i.e., Sources is wrong;
Bibliography is wrong; etc.) In both cases, this list begins on a new page.
Although APA style calls for an abstract, I do not require you to write one if you choose APA.
That said, you may write an abstract if you wish, but it should not be included in your word
count. MLA style does not require abstracts.
The Works Cited or Reference list is organized in alphabetical order, arranged by the last name
of the author (or, in cases of multiple authorship, the last name of the first author). If there is
no author, alphabetize using the title.
Do not bullet or number the bibliography entries. Neither MLA nor APA allows this.
Each item in the Works Cited or Reference list uses hanging indents. For instructions on
creating hanging indents look here:
In MS Word: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65UQSU0cLAU&t=4s
In Google Docs: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a-LqNpLnryQ
Researcher Subject Position
While research generally strives to be rigorous, even objective, as you know by now researchers
sometimes reflect on their own history and experience in their work. In doing so, they are trying to
account for the ways that these personal characteristics may shape their work.
As you know, transgender studies endeavours to centre transgender experience; further, historical
research about transgender experience has tended to reproduce cisnormative assumptions about
trans people. For these reasons, it can be important for those doing research in this area to
acknowledge their positionality.
Your research paper, then, should include a statement about your subject position. It could range
from being very brief to quite detailed, depending on what seems appropriate to your research
context and project. While I have no rules about how you should do this, areas to consider might be
your race or ethnicity, your gender/gender identity, your sexuality, your socio-economic status, your
2022 Mary Ann S. Saunders. Do not copy, share, or upload to the internet. All rights reserved. updated 12 March 2022
education level, your relative level of ability/disability, and so on. There may be other aspects of
your experience not listed here which you think are important. Ultimately, what you include in this
statement is up to you. (Also, you do not have to include everything about yourself. This about your
research and what it makes sense to mention relative to it.)
If you are working with a co-researcher, you can decide to either
write a combined account of your subject positions, if you have similar life experiences (e.g.
Both researchers in this project are straight, cisgender Taiwanese women who); OR
each write a statement, if you have very different life experiences (e.g. James is a queer
and non-binary settler of colour who. Rachel is a first-generation immigrant of Scottish and
Dutch descent who identifies as a cisgender lesbian, and).
For help with this, you should review Academic Writing, section 13E (pp. 305311 in the print
edition). In addition, you may find it useful to consider one transgender researchers advice to
Researcher/practitioner self-disclosure. Positionality disclosures provide needed
context. Specifically,  I suggest that cis researchers  should disclose that they
are cis, and recognize that this affords them privilege and influences their work. My
hope is that this will promote reflection and sensitivity to this issue, both in themselves
and in the research community more broadly.1
Finally, below are some statements about positioning from two research articles. These may provide
useful models and opportunities for you to reflect on your subject position, but do not copy them in
whole or in part, simply inserting your own information. Rather, you and your partner (if you have
one) should reflect on who you are and write your own statement.
As with all qualitative research, it was important to place myself within the context of this
study (Merriam, 2009). I identify as a White, gay, cisgender man who has advocated alongside
queer college students. In attempt to bracket (Creswell, 2007) my experience as an advocate
for queer students and to accurately represent participant meanings and experiences, a
colleague who is a Ph.D. candidate and familiar with qualitative analysis provided assistance
with analysis through peer review. This peer review contributed to researcher reflexivity
(Merriam, 2009) and was my attempt to bracket my positionality as a queer advocate by
allowing the participant stories to arise naturally from the data (Creswell, 2007).
Pryor, J.T. (2015). Out in the Classroom: Transgender Student Experiences at a Large Public University.
Journal of College Student Development 56(5) (2015), 444.
Qualitative research methods appreciate that the researchers identity and relationships with
participants influence data collection and analysis. As such, it may be best for researchers to
own ones positionality and attempt to account for it rather than to force an air of
detachment (Merriam and Tisdell, 2015). Therefore, I believe it is pertinent to disclose that I
am a transgender woman and a member of the group of people whose experiences and
values are the subject of this work. As such, I have strong opinions about the study topic and
I have been personally affected by denials of insurance coverage for transition-related
care, and lack the resources necessary to pursue formal voice training sessions with a speech
therapist. Based on these experiences, I initiated the study with a specific technology solution
in mind. I have been disappointed by currently available apps for voice training, as the few
1. Ahmed, A.A. (2018). Trans Competent Interaction Design: A Qualitative Study on Voice, Identity, and
Technology. Interacting with Computers 30(1), 67.
that exist are highly priced and limited in functionality. Despite my inclination that this idea is
worth pursuing, I recognize that my own perspective (as a relatively privileged trans woman
working in academia) is limited. My goal was to explore this particular topic with other trans
people through semi-structured interviewing. Other potential applications were not discussed
at length with participants.
It is possible that my beliefs influenced the direction the conversations took and the
thoughts that participants chose to share. Despite this, I gave precedence to the participants,
who had strong opinions and important lived experiences of their own to share. My position
may also have affected the data analysis and interpretation, in that I could have been drawn
to feelings and values that I shared with participants, without giving equal weight to those
that did not resonate with my experience.
Ahmed, A.A. (2018). Trans Competent Interaction Design: A Qualitative Study on Voice, Identity, and
Technology. Interacting with Computers 30(1), 57-58.
Class Conference Presentation
To some degree, you need to determine a structure appropriate to your paper (particularly the body). Keep in mind that that we have encountered some structural diversity in the scholarship weve read. What sort of structure seems best suited to the ki…
If you wish, and it works for your topic, you may use the IMRD structure outlined in Section 13D (pp. 300304 in the print edition) of Academic Writing.
If you have used open and axial coding to analyze your research sites, it may be helpful to organize the body of your paper by the themes you have identified, using the themes themselves as headers. 1. Familys Relationships Role in Transgender Individuals Wellbeing
Doussa, Power, and Riggs explore the ways that an individuals transitioning can positively or negatively impact their family relationships. They emphasise the high value placed on family relationships by transgender individuals and focus on how these changes in relationships affect their wellbeing. Their research highlighted the lack of support these individuals receive from family members, leading to them feeling as if they have no support, causing them to isolate themselves from family members. They also highlight a feeling of shame that was not only present in the individual but also the family, often hiding the individuals identity from others. This article is useful for our research because it adds to our state of knowledge by highlighting the negative impacts and stress that having a transgender identity can add to an individuals family relationships.
2. Impact of Covid 19 on Family Carers
Muldrew, Fee, and Coates identify the many impacts that COVID-19 has had on the care and support that individuals receive from family carers, such as siblings, parents, and close friends. While caregiving and family support has already faced obstacles pre-pandemic, the pandemic has further stressed the quality of care individuals receive from family. They highlight how the measures taken in an effort to limit COVID-19 have further reduced the quality of care and support individuals receive. Muldrew, Fee, and Coates identify factors such as increased isolation, higher pressure for caregivers, lack of support services, and fear of virus transmission/quarantine to be responsible for this further reduction in quality of support and care. These factors lead to decreased wellbeing which reduces caregiver support, which can be fought against by improving caregiver jobs, encouraging vaccines to reduce isolation, and providing wellbeing assessments to identify needed support. This article is useful for our research topic because it adds to our state of knowledge by providing information about how the pandemic has added obstacles and stress to family relationships and caregivers, as well as solutions for fighting this stress.
3.Economic stress, parenting, and adolescents adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic
In this article, Low and Mounts examine the pathways through which financial stress impacts parents and adolescents well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Their research shows that the pandemic has further exacerbated financial issues faced by families, with factors including rising unemployment adding to existing stressors They highlight how parent-adolescent relationships are facing higher amounts of stress during the pandemic due to higher stay-at-home intensity, with factors including isolation from the outside world, more opportunity for conflict, and higher parenting stress. This can lead to more general psychological distress which, when experienced by parents, undermines the adjustment of adolescents and leads them to internalise stressful behaviours. This article is useful for our research proposal because it adds to our state of knowledge by showing that the pandemic has further stressed family relationships, specifically parent-child relationships, and the different factors that cause this stress.
4.The Complexity of Family Reactions to Identity among Homeless and College Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Young Adults
In this research paper, Schmitz and Tyler reflect on reactions to individuals coming out as being part of the LGBTQ community and how they can differ from family to family. Schmitz and Taylor highlight the importance of family support in the transition of LGBTQ individuals and how it can make the transition much easier or more difficult. They examine families responses to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer youth identity, which range from rejection to acceptance, and identify the different factors that contribute to the difference in these responses. These factors, such as the quality of family relationships, account for the differences in reactions among family members towards LGTBQ identities. This article helps us better understand the reactions from families that LGTBQ individuals face as well as the different factors that play a role, adding to our state of knowledge on how having a minority identity affects an individuals relationship with and support from their family.
Family Relationships of Transgender Individuals During COVID: Stress, Isolation & Family Support
Many factors negatively affect and further stress the quality of family relationships (Low & Mounts 2021, Schmitz & Tyler 2017, von Doussa et. al 2017, Muldrew et. al 2021). Individuals expressing LGBTQ identities often face negative reactions from family, with lack of support and identity avoidance causing shame and stress (von Doussa et. al 2017). Schmitz and Tyler (2017) found that family reactions to LGBTQ identities ranged from rejection to acceptance, with factors such as the quality of family relationships being responsible for these differences. COVID-19 has also stressed family relationships, with more isolation, reduced support, and increased stressors serving as main factors (Low & Mounts 2021, Muldrew et. al 2021). This affects family relationships on multiple levels by reducing opportunities for individuals to receive support from family and increasing stress in caregivers, which adolescents may internalise (Low & Mounts 2021, Muldrew et. al 2021). While research looks into how the pandemic and expressing minority identities stress relationships with family members, little research explores how the pandemic has stressed family relationships among transgender individuals. Because of this, our research will look into how the pandemic has further stressed family relationships among transgender individuals. What roles do identity stress, pandemic isolation, and family support play in family relationships? How has COVID-19 further stressed transgender individuals relationships with family? Our paper will address these questions. Keeping previous research in mind, we predict the pandemic will further stress family relationships, with transgender individuals specifically facing stress from lack of support, little socialization, and isolation with unsupportive family members. We will explore social media posts of transgender individuals discussing the pandemics effect on their family relationships, including sources such as Reddit, Youtube, and Twitter. Using these sources, we will use open and axial coding to identify themes commonly faced by these individuals, such as isolation, rejection, and shame.
Article Pages For Gist Notes:
Although negative physical and mental ill-health outcomes have been associated with the caregiving role pre-pandemic (Gilhooly et al., 2016; Sambasivam et al., 2019; Shu et al., 2017), international qualitative and quantitative evidence in this review demonstrates that since the pandemic began, many carers experienced worsening psychological and physical wellbeing due to public health restrictions aimed at limiting virus transmission. Mandatory home confinement and lack of support services linked to public health restrictions severely impacted care recipients wellbeing, especially in those with neurodegenerative disorders, which in turn contributed to declining carer wellbeing through additional stress and perceived carer burden. The plight of carers has received little media or public attention, and the need to recognise the significant pressure experienced by carers as a result of the pandemic is urgent (Carers UK, 2020b). A recent quality statement for supporting adult carers (NICE, 2021) in the UK has reinforced that a carer’s physical, mental and social wellbeing should be assessed and addressed through a carer’s assessment. It calls for evidence of local processes to ensure that all carers who are known to services are offered an assessment, and that an assessment will result in access to appropriate and tailored support.
Lack of availability of replacement care, or carers inability to afford replacement care are among the reasons why 48% of carers have not had a break from their caring role in 5 years (Carers UK, 2021). Increased caregiving due to the closure of support services or withdrawal of other support (such as friends and family) and the need to socially isolate often meant that carers had to reduce or leave their paid employment. This exacerbated an already precarious financial situation for many carers who were left in debt or unable to provide basic needs (Carers UK, 2020b; Lorenz-Dant & Comas-Herrera, 2021). Although local initiatives to target carer needs such as the purchase of technology (Campbell, 2020) or individual cash grants (Southern Health & Social Care Trust, 2020) were available and undoubtedly benefited carers, they exist sporadically and fall short of a policy-led proactive and integrated approach that is needed in order to sustain carers in their role over the longer term. Funding, specifically in the areas of social care, state benefits for carers, improved access to breaks and improvements to flexible working hours for working carers is urgently needed (Carers UK, 2020b).
A recent report concluded that caring is a lonely and isolating experience which requires a clear pathway to practical, financial and emotional support (TIDE, 2021). In the UK, social support for people living with chronic illness, including attendance at day centres, periodic residential care, or domiciliary care, provides carers with the essential respite to enable them to engage in activities that maintain their wellbeing. COVID-19 related public health restrictions resulted in suspension of many services and consequently, carers had to take on additional care, often around the clock, and they lost the opportunity to engage with peer support, social opportunities or rest. Thus, the loss of support services indirectly impacted carer wellbeing, leading to negative physical and psychological outcomes.
Carers have ongoing concerns about the ability to return to support services, and the associated risks of leaving the house while COVID-19 is still prevalent. Fears about virus transmission or worries about possible future quarantine may deter carers from reconnecting with support services and contribute to uncertainty and carer stress, thus increasing the necessity for specific practical and psychological support to enable care recipients to re-join support services. Future processes and pathways to encourage the rebuilding of social support networks require attention. Whilst availability of the vaccine will alleviate many concerns, high vaccine hesitancy (French et al., 2020; Lin et al., 2021) represents an important problem, and further efforts should be made to increase vaccine uptake among carers and within society more widely.
Support measures reported in our findings were only discussed in a limited number of studies (n = 12). Given the reported closure of support services, worsening of care recipients symptoms and increasing care responsibilities of carers as a result of COVID-19, it is concerning that research to date does not report commensurate carer support. It is clear that a one size fits all approach will not be effective when considering the variations that exist in the caregiving context, and diversity in caregiving (such as demographic variables), or caring-related health inequalities (Carr et al., 2019). As a consequence of COVID-19, the use of technology to allow continuous communication between support providers and carers could be employed, however, although this helped to minimise virus transmission through a reduction of face-to-face contact, it should also be recognised that not all carers can access this type of support (Carers UK, 2020b). Barriers to the use of technology include lack of experience or lack of access, and other obstacles such as familiarity, design challenges, competency and needing help from others (Aledeh & Habib Adam, 2020; Carers UK, 2020b; Fischer et al., 2014; Hirvonen et al., 2020; Rasi et al., 2020), resulting in low recruitment and retention rates of older carers for online support (Baruah et al., 2021). In light of this information, it cannot be assumed that the use of technology can replace face-to-face contact, rather it should be used to supplement existing support.
Gist Notes For Article:
Caregiving + pandemic restrictions negative health outcomes, lack of support
Recognise pandemic pressure URGENT wellbeing assessments gain needed support
Support withdrawal + isolation stop caregiving miss basic needs
Solution = funding + benefits + flexible hours + breaks
Caring = lonely + isolating requires support pathways
Pandemic restrictions support service suspension lost engagement opportunities wellbeing negatively impacted
Pandemic restrictions lower support engagement solution encourage vaccine + rebuilding support networks
Research shows COVID pressure, but not increased support pressure
Technology communication reduce transmission BUT restricted access + experience = barriers low support engagement
Peer Reflection Paragraph:
The peer review process was useful for us in two ways. Firstly, while reviewing a peers work, we identified mistakes that we made in our proposal. For example, while reviewing our assigned peers work, we noticed their proposal was double spaced and highlighted their main abstractions, which we realised we forgot to do. Secondly, the process allowed us to make specific changes to our proposal to strengthen it based on feedback. With how central of roles COVID and identity stress play in our research proposal, we realised we had to mention them in the title. We removed certain aspects of the proposal which did not serve any purpose to our topic, such as socioeconomic status and timing of life course transitions affecting transgender individuals family relationships. We also adjusted certain sentences in the proposal where our reviewer found they had trouble piecing information together or seeing the relevance of the certain sentences, such as how our proposal suddenly brought up the pandemic without talking about why it was important. The peer review process pointed out these criticisms and allowed us to remove unnecessary information, add key aspects of our research to the title, and adjust sentences to be clearer.
Low, N., & Mounts, N. S. (2021). Economic stress, parenting, and adolescents adjustment during the covid 19 pandemic. Family Relations, 71(1), 90107. https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.12623
Muldrew, D. H., Fee, A., & Coates, V. (2021). Impact of the Covid19 pandemic on Family carers in the community: A scoping review. Health & Social Care in the Community. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13677
Schmitz, R. M., & Tyler, K. A. (2017). The complexity of family reactions to identity among homeless and college lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and Queer Young Adults. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(4), 11951207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-1014-5
von Doussa, H., Power, J., & Riggs, D. W. (2017). Family matters: Transgender and gender diverse peoples experience with family when they transition. Journal of Family Studies, 26(2), 272285. https://doi.org/10.1080/13229400.2017.1375965