Second Exam Study Guide (answers available in lecture notes on Canvas)
Platos Republic Book I
1.) What is the first definition offered for the concept in question, and what counter-
example does Socrates provide against it? (331c-e).
2.) What is the second definition offered for the concept in question, which is further
qualified by an appeal to the status between the subject and their relationships,
and what counter-example does Socrates provide against it?
3.) What is Socrates position on retributive harms, and what argument does he
provide from the nature and end of a thing, using the example of a racehorse?
What is Thrasymachus contrary view concerning the definition of the concept
that is at the heart of this dialogue and what are some of Socrates arguments
against this view? (name at least one).
Platos Republic Book IV
4.) What are the four virtues that were commonly-acknowledged in ancient Greece
(and continued through the medieval period)?
5.) *What are the three classes of citizens in Platos ideal Republic, and the
corresponding virtues in each?
6.) Which of the four virtues are left over and why are they not localized in one
particular class like the rest?
7.) *What is justice in Platos ideal Republic?
8.) Why is the division of labor so important to Plato?
9.) *How is the organizational structure of the Republic connected to the human
soul? What arguments does Socrates provide for this connection?
Platos Republic Book VI*
10.) Explain Platos Simile of the sun. What does it claim about perception,
knowledge, existence and the other forms?
11.) Be able to draw Platos divided line that illustrates the relation between
his epistemology and metaphysics, as well as the relation of those two
disciplines to the material and sensible realm.
Platos Republic Book VII*
12.) Explain Platos simile (or allegory/analogy) of the cave. What does it
claim about perception, knowledge, existence and the forms? Who escapes
from it, how do they do so, and what ethical obligation is placed upon
those who escape?
13.) *List Aristotles ten categories of being and provide a short explanation of
what these categories are, as well as how the total set of ten can be
understood to be divided into two more primary divisions.
14.) What is predication and what is the difference between essential and
15.) What are universals as opposed to particulars?
16.) *Be able to draw a category tree (Porphyrian tree) in order to illustrate
your knowledge of how particulars are divided into genera, species and
differentia. (Remember my examples on the board in class.)
17.) Be able to provide some examples of universal secondary substances,
particular primary substances, universal accidents, and particular
18.) *How are substances used by Aristotle to answer the primary Pre-Socratic
question of What is change and what permanent element survives
Aristotles De Anima (On the Soul)
19.) What are first and second potentialities and actualities? Describe the
difference and provide an example of each.
20.) *What is Aristotles definition of a soul? What kind of soul does a human
being have, which defines the sort of species that a human being is?
21.) *Describe and explain the three degrees of soul that all exist in a nested
hierarchy in the highest kind of soul.
22.) *What is Aristotles view of the relationship between the soul and the
body in a human being? Can the human soul live without the body?
Aristotles Physics (The Four Causes)
23.) *Name, explain and give examples of Aristotles four causes.
24.) How do the four causes exist in biological species?
Aristotles De Anima (On the soul)
25.) What is Aristotles definition of the human soul?