Read/review the following resources for this activity:
Textbook: Chapter 9, 10
Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)
This week you will use your readings from the past week as a point of departure to create your own artistic production and a reflection paper.
Part 1: Art Creation
Select a poem, musical piece, or dance piece to use as a point of inspiration. Create a work of poetry, lyrics, music, or dance, inspired by your selected art piece. Video or audio recordings should be no longer than 5 minutes and must be in MP4 format.
Note:If your art creation requiresa separate file submission, please submit in theArt Creation Submission (Recordings)area following this assignment.
Part 2: Reflection
Write a reflection about the relationship between your art production and the inspiration piece.Include the following in the reflection paper:
Include the inspiration poem, lyrics, or recording of musical or dance piece within the document. Use a link in the case of a recording.
Record the title, artist/author/composer, year, and place of origin.
Briefly explain the background of the inspiration piece.
Your Art Piece
Include your original poem or lyrics within the document. If you selected a musical or dance piece, submit as a separate file in theArt Creation Submission (Recordings)area following this assignment.
Provide a title.
Explain the background of your piece.
Explain the thematic connection between the two pieces.
How are they similar and different?
Are they the same medium? How does the medium impact what the viewer experiences?
Original Artwork Requirements
Methods: typed poem or lyrics, or recording of musical or dance piece
No computer-generated pieces
Writing Requirements (APA format)
Length: 1.5-2 pages (not including title page, text of inspiration piece, or references page)
12-point Times New Roman font
References page (minimum of 1 scholarly source)
This activity will be graded based on the W5 Art Creation & Reflection Rubric.
W5 Art Creation & Reflection Grading Rubric
W5 Art Creation & Reflection Grading Rubric
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLength
Meets length requirement
Does not meet length requirement
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContent
Submission addresses all of the following elements: text/audio/video of both inspiration piece and original work, information about the inspiration piece, information about your original piece, and connection between the two.
Submission addresses most of the following elements: text/audio/video of both inspiration piece and original work, information about the inspiration piece, information about your original piece, and connection between the two.
Submission addresses some of the following elements: text/audio/video of both inspiration piece and original work, information about the inspiration piece, information about your original piece, and connection between the two.
Submission addresses few of the following elements: text/audio/video of both inspiration piece and original work, information about the inspiration piece, information about your original piece, and connection between the two.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeBackground – Inspiration Artwork
The analysis of the inspiration artwork provides detailed background information that conveys strong understanding of the work.
The analysis of the inspiration artwork provides a significant background information that conveys an understanding of the work.
The analysis of the inspiration artwork provides a some background information but additional details are needed to convey an understanding of the work.
The analysis of the inspiration artwork provides little background information, or the information is unclear, suggesting little understanding of the work.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeBackground – Original Artwork
The analysis of the original artwork provides detailed background information that conveys a very well thought-out approach to the creation.
The analysis of the original artwork provides significant background information that conveys well thought-out approach to the creation, but some details could be added for additional insight into the creation.
The analysis of the original artwork provides some background information, but additional details could be added for clarity and insight into the creation.
The analysis of the original artwork provides little background information, or the information is unclear.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeConnection
The analysis clearly articulates a connection between the two works, showing a strong understanding of theme and medium.
The analysis articulates a connection between the two works but could include additional details for support of points or to make analysis clearer.
The analysis demonstrates some connection between the two works, but examination could be refined and more in depth to address both all aspects (theme and medium).
Analysis of the learning is limited or unclear, lacking details and support.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSource Integration
Paper includes reference to a scholarly source within the essay and properly integrates the source.
Paper includes reference to a scholarly source within the essay but does not properly integrate the source.
Paper does not make reference to a scholarly source provided within the essay.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeClarity & Flow
The writing contains strong word choice that clarifies ideas and masterful sentence variety aids with the flow of ideas.
The writing contains varied word choice and sentence structures that clarify ideas and aid with the flow of ideas.
The writing contains word choice and sentence structures that can be revised for better clarification of ideas and flow of ideas.
The writing contains wording and sentence structures that are awkward and/or unclear, impeding the clarity and flow of ideas.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting: Mechanics & Usage
The writing is free of errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation that would detract from a clear reading of the paper.
The writing contains a few errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation, but the errors do not detract from a clear reading of the text.
The writing contains some errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation that need to be addressed for a clearer reading of the paper.
The writing contains several errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation that impede a clear reading of the paper.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA Paper Format
Paper is formatted to include all 5 of the following: title page, Times New Roman font, 12-point font, double spacing, and page numbers.
Paper is formatted to include 4 of the following: title page, Times New Roman font, 12-point font, double spacing, and page numbers.
Paper is formatted to include 3 of the following: title page, Times New Roman font, 12-point font, double spacing, and page numbers.
Paper is formatted to include 2 of the following: title page, Times New Roman font, 12-point font, double spacing, and page numbers.
Paper is formatted to include 1 or fewer of the following: title page, Times New Roman font, 12-point font, double spacing, and page numbers.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA: Citation and Reference Formatting
All references include complete bibliographic information for sources and are properly formatted using APA style.
Most references include complete bibliographic information for sources are properly formatted using APA style.
Some of the references include complete bibliographic information for sources are properly formatted using APA style.
Few of the references include complete bibliographic information for sources are properly formatted using APA style.
There is no reference page.
5pts THE HUMANITIES
THROUGH THE ARTS
T e n t h E d i t i o n
Lee A. Jacobus
Professor of English Emeritus
University of Connecticut
F. David Martin
Professor of Philosophy Emeritus
Universal History Archive/Getty Images
jac16871_fm_i-xx.indd 1 12/11/17 11:17 AM
THE HUMANITIES THROUGH THE ARTS, TENTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright 2019 by
McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions
2015, 2011, and 2008. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any
means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill
Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or
broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside
the United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LCR 21 20 19 18
Portfolio Manager: Sarah Remington
Product Developers: Beth Tripmacher, Bruce Cantley
Content Project Managers: Mary E. Powers (Core), Emily Windelborn (Assessment)
Buyer: Susan K. Culbertson
Design: Tara McDermott
Content Licensing Specialist: Carrie Burger
Compositor: MPS Limited
Cover Image: (background): LACMA – Los Angeles County Museum of Art; (back cover (left) to front cover
(right)); (door): Lee A. Jacobus; (wall carving): Lee A. Jacobus; (cave painting): siloto/Shutterstock RF;
(amphitheater): Inu/Shutterstock RF; (Taj Mahal): Seb c’est bien/Shutterstock RF; (dancer): Fuse/Getty Images
RF; (Shakespeare): duncan1890/Getty Images RF; (sculpture): National Gallery of Art, Washington; (graffiti):
Lee A. Jacobus; (church): National Archives Catalog; (violin): Comstock Images/SuperStock RF.
All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Martin, F. David, 1920- author. | Jacobus, Lee A., author.
The humanities through the arts/F. David Martin, Professor of
Philosophy Emeritus, Bucknell University; Lee A. Jacobus, Professor of
English Emeritus, University of Connecticut.
Tenth edition. | New York : McGraw-Hill Education, 2018. | Includes index.
LCCN 2017051530 | ISBN 9781259916878 (alk. paper)
LCSH: ArtsPsychological aspects. | Art appreciation.
LCC NX165 .M37 2018 | DDC 701/.18dc23 LC record available
The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website
does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education
does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.
jac16871_fm_i-xx.indd 2 12/11/17 11:17 AM
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Lee A. Jacobus (PhD, Claremont Graduate University) taught at Western Con-
necticut State University and then at the University of Connecticut (Storrs) until
he retired in 2001. He held a Danforth Teachers Grant while earning his doctor-
ate. His publications include Shakespeare and the Dialectic of Certainty (St. Martins
Press, 1992); Sudden Apprehension: Aspects of Knowledge in Paradise Lost (Mouton,
1976); John Cleveland: A Critical Study (G. K. Hall, 1975); Aesthetics and the Arts
(McGraw-Hill, 1968); The Bedford Introduction to Drama (Bedford/St. Martins, 2018);
and A World of Ideas (Bedford/St. Martins, 2017).
F. David Martin (PhD, University of Chicago) taught at the University of Chicago
and then at Bucknell University until his retirement in 1983. He was a Fulbright
Research Scholar in Florence and Rome from 1957 through 1959 and received
seven other major research grants during his career, as well as the Christian Lind-
back Award for Distinguished Teaching. Dr. Martins publications include Art and
the Religious Experience (Associated University Presses, 1972); Sculpture and the En-
livened Space (The University Press of Kentucky, 1981); and Facing Death: Theme and
Variations (Associated University Presses, 2006). Professor Martin died in 2014.
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We dedicate this study to
teachers and students of the humanities.
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1The Humanities: An Introduction1
2What Is a Work of Art?17
3Being a Critic of the Arts42
Part 2THE ARTS
13Television and Video Art330
14Is It Art or Something Like It?352
15The Interrelationships of the Arts378
16The Interrelationships of the Humanities397
Source: The Michael C. Rockefeller Memorial Collection, Bequest
of Nelson A. Rockefeller, 1979/The Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Subject Matter and Content34
EXPERIENCING: Interpretations of the Female Nude40
Further Thoughts on Artistic Form41
3Being a Critic of the Arts42
You Are Already an Art Critic42
Participation and Criticism43
Three Kinds of Criticism43
EXPERIENCING: The Polish Rider55
Part 2THE ARTS
Our Visual Powers58
The Media of Painting59
Other Media and Mixed Media65
Elements of Painting68
1 The Humanities: An
The Humanities: A Study of Values1
Art, Commerce, and Taste4
Responses to Art5
EXPERIENCING: The Mona Lisa9
Structure and Artistic Form10
Abstract Ideas and Concrete Images12
2What Is a Work of Art?17
Identifying Art Conceptually18
Identifying Art Perceptually18
Participation and Artistic Form25
Subject Matter and Artistic Form28
Participation, Artistic Form, and Content29
Artistic Form: Examples30
Photo: Kira Perov. Courtesy Bill Viola Studio
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Space and Architecture122
Four Necessities of Architecture126
Technical Requirements of Architecture126
Functional Requirements of Architecture127
Spatial Requirements of Architecture131
Revelatory Requirements of Architecture131
Defiance of Gravity142
Integration of Light143
Combinations of Types146
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and The Taj Mahal147
EXPERIENCING: The Taj Mahal149
High-Rises and Skyscrapers150
FOCUS ON:The Alhambra155
Spoken Language and Literature163
The Narrative and the Narrator167
The Episodic Narrative169
The Organic Narrative171
The Quest Narrative176
EXPERIENCING: La Belle Dame Sans Merci182
The Clarity of Painting75
The All-at-Onceness of Painting77
Intensity and Restfulness in Abstract Painting80
Comparison of Five Impressionist Paintings81
FOCUS ON:The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood86
Sculpture and Painting Compared92
Sculpture and Space94
Sculpture in the Round97
Sculpture and Architecture Compared98
Sculpture and the Human Body99
Sculpture in the Round and the
EXPERIENCING: Sculpture and Physical Size103
Truth to Materials104
Protest against Technology108
Accommodation with Technology110
FOCUS ON:African Sculpture114
Sculpture in Public Places117
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FOCUS ON:Po Chi, Poet of the Tang Dynasty191
Aristotle and the Elements of Drama197
Dialogue and Soliloquy198
Genres of Drama: Tragedy201
The Tragic Stage202
Stage Scenery and Costumes202
Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet206
Comedy: Old and New209
Tragicomedy: The Mixed Genre211
A Play for Study: Riders to the Sea211
EXPERIENCING: Riders to the Sea218
FOCUS ON:Musical Theater: Hamilton218
Hearing and Listening224
The Elements of Music225
Melodic Material: Melody, Theme, and Motive227
The Subject Matter of Music229
EXPERIENCING: Chopins Prelude 7 in A Major231
Two Theories: Formalism and Expressionism233
Theme and Variations236
FOCUS ON: Beethovens Symphony in E Major, No. 3, Eroica243
Blues and Jazz: Popular American Music248
Rock and Roll and Rap251
Subject Matter of Dance254
EXPERIENCING: Feeling and Dance256
Dance and Ritual258
The Court Dance259
Alvin Aileys Revelations267
Batsheva Dance Company270
Pilobolus and Momix Dance Companies271
Mark Morris Dance Group272
FOCUS ON:Theater Dance272
Photography and Painting276
EXPERIENCING: Photography and Art280
Photography and Painting: The Pictorialists281
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The f/64 Group284
The Modern Eye292
FOCUS ON:Digital Photography296
The Subject Matter of Film299
Directing and Editing300
The Participative Experience and Film303
The Film Image305
EXPERIENCING: Still Frames and Photography305
Camera Point of View308
Violence and Film310
Image and Action313
The Context of Film History318
Two Great Films: The Godfather and
The Narrative Structure of The Godfather Films320
Coppolas Use of Sound321
The Power of The Godfather322
FOCUS ON:Michael Curtizs Casablanca323
13Television and Video Art330
The Evolution of Television330
The Subject Matter of Television and
The Television Series333
The Structure of the Self-Contained Episode334
The Television Serial335
Three Emmy Winners339
FOCUS ON:The Americans342
EXPERIENCING: Jacopo Pontormo and Bill Viola: The
14 Is It Art or Something
Art and Artlike352
EXPERIENCING: Propaganda Art362
Duchamp and His Legacy371
15 The Interrelationships
of the Arts378
Film Interprets Literature: Howards End380
Music Interprets Drama: The Marriage of Figaro382
Painting Interprets Poetry: The Starry Night385
Sculpture Interprets Poetry: Apollo and Daphne387
EXPERIENCING: Berninis Apollo and Daphne and Ovids
Drama Interprets Painting390
jac16871_fm_i-xx.indd 9 12/11/17 11:17 AM
EXPERIENCING: The Humanities and Students
FOCUS ON: The Arts and History, the Arts and Philosophy,
the Arts and Theology402
FOCUS ON:Photography Interprets Fiction391
Architecture Interprets Dance: National Nederlanden Building392
Painting Interprets Dance and Music: The Dance and Music392
EXPERIENCING: Death in Venice: Three Versions395
16 The Interrelationships
of the Humanities397
The Humanities and the Sciences397
The Arts and the Other Humanities398
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The Humanities through the Arts, tenth edition, explores the humanities with an em-
phasis on the arts. Examining the relationship of the humanities to values, objects,
and events important to people is central to this book. We make a distinction between
artists and other humanists: Artists reveal values, while other humanists examine or
reflect on values. We study how values are revealed in the arts while keeping in mind
a basic question: What is art? Judging by the existence of ancient artifacts, we see
that artistic expression is one of the most fundamental human activities. It binds us
together as a people by revealing the most important values of our culture.
Our genre-based approach offers students the opportunity to understand the
relationship of the arts to human values by examining, in-depth, each of the major
artistic media. Subject matter, form, and content in each of the arts supply the
framework for careful analysis. Painting and photography focus our eyes on the
visual appearance of things. Sculpture reveals the textures, densities, and shapes
of things. Architecture sharpens our perception of spatial relationships, both in-
side and out. Literature, theater, cinema, and video explore values and make us
more aware of the human condition. Our understanding of feelings is deepened by
music. Our sensitivity to movement, especially of the human body, is enhanced by
dance. The wide range of opportunities for criticism and analysis helps the reader
synthesize the complexities of the arts and their interaction with values of many
kinds. All of this is achieved with an exceptionally vivid and complete illustration
program alongside detailed discussion and interactive responses to the problems
inherent in a close study of the arts and values of our time.
This edition, as with previous editions, is organized into three parts, offering con-
siderable flexibility in the classroom:
Part 1, Fundamentals, includes the first three introductory chapters. In Chapter 1,
The Humanities: An Introduction, we distinguish the humanities from the sciences,
and the arts from other humanities. In Chapter 2, What Is a Work of Art?, we raise
the question of definition in art and the ways in which we distinguish art from other
objects and experiences. Chapter 3, Being a Critic of the Arts, introduces the vital role
of criticism in art appreciation and evaluation.
ArenaPal/Topham/The Image Works
jac16871_fm_i-xx.indd 11 12/11/17 11:17 AM
Part 2, The Arts, includes individual chapters on each of the basic arts. The
structure of this section permits complete flexibility: The chapters may be used
in their present order or in any order one wishes. We begin with the individual
chapters Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture; follow with Literature, Theater,
Music, and Dance; and continue with Photography, Cinema, and Television
and Video Art. Instructors may reorder or omit chapters as needed. The chapter Pho-
tography logically precedes the chapters Cinema and Television and Video Art for the
convenience of instructors who prefer to teach the chapters in the order presented.
Part 3, Interrelationships, begins with Chapter 14, Is It Art or Something Like It?
We study illustration, folk art, propaganda, and kitsch while raising the question
What is art? We also examine the avant-garde as it pushes us to the edge of defi-
nition. Chapter 15, The Interrelationships of the Arts, explores the ways in which the
arts work together, as in how a film interprets E. M. Forsters novel Howards End,
how literature and a musical interpretation of a Beaumarchais play result in Mo-
zarts opera The Marriage of Figaro, how Walt Whitmans poetry inspires van Goghs
painting The Starry Night, how a passage from Ovids epic poem The Metamorpho-
ses inspires the Bernini sculpture Apollo and Daphne, and more. Chapter 16, The
Interrelationships of the Humanities, addresses the ways in which the arts reveal val-
ues shared by the other humanitiesparticularly history, philosophy, and theology.
Key Changes in the tenth editiOn
NEW Expanded Connect course with SmartBook.Connect is a highly reliable,
easy-to-use homework and learning management solution that embeds learning
science and award-winning adaptive tools to improve student results.
jac16871_fm_i-xx.indd 12 12/11/17 11:17 AM
LearnSmart is an adaptive learning program designed to help students learn faster,
study smarter, and retain more knowledge for greater success. Distinguishing what
students know from what they dont, and focusing on concepts they are most likely
to forget, LearnSmart continuously adapts to each students needs by building
a personalized learning path. An intelligent adaptive study tool, LearnSmart is
proven to strengthen memory recall, keep students in class, and boost grades.
The Humanities Through the Arts now offers two reading experiences for students
and instructors: SmartBook and eBook. Fueled by LearnSmart, SmartBook is the
first and only adaptive reading experience currently available. SmartBook creates
a personalized reading experience by highlighting the most impactful concepts a
student needs to learn at that moment in time. The reading experience continu-
ously adapts by highlighting content based on what the student knows and doesnt
know. Real-time reports quickly identify the concepts that require more attention
from individual studentsor the entire class. eBook provides a simple, elegant read-
ing experience, available for offline reading.
jac16871_fm_i-xx.indd 13 12/11/17 11:17 AM
Updated illustration program and contextual discussions.More than 30 percent
of the images in this edition are new or have been updated to include fresh
classic and contemporary works. New discussions of these works appear near
the illustrations. The 200-plus images throughout the book have been carefully
chosen and reproduced in full color when possible, resulting in a beautifully
illustrated text. Newly added visual artists represented include painters Arte-
misia Gentileschi, Diego Velasquez, Frederic Lord Leighton, Amedeo Modigliani,
Winslow Homer, Morris Louis, Hokusai, Willem de Kooning, Jean-Honore Frag-
onard, Arshile Gorky, Henry Wallis, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Arthur Hughes,
William Holman Hunt, and John Waterhouse; sculptors Edgar Degas, Kara
Walker, Magdalena Abakanowicz, and Naum Gabo; photographers Berenice
Abbott, Nan Goldin, Paul Strand, Bruce Davidson, Carrie Mae Weems, Tina
Barney, Wang Quinsong, and Bill Gekas; and video artists Pipilotti Riist and Bill
Viola. Newly added film and television stills represent Michael Curtizs classic
film Casablanca, the popular television shows Game of Thrones and The Americans,
Orson Wellss The Lady from Shanghai, Jonathan Demmes The Silence of the
Lambs, Steven Spielbergs Saving Private Ryan, Alejandro Inarritus The Revenant,
Along with the many new illustrations and contextual discussions of the visual
arts, film, and television, new works and images in the literary, dance, theatrical, and
musical arts have been added and contextualized. These include works by Robert
Herrick, John Masefield, Amy Lowell, Alfred Lord Tennyson, John Donne, Wang
Chang-Ling, Po Chui, John Millington Synge, Lin-Manuel Miranda, Frederic
Chopin, Tupac Shakur, and the Batsheva Dance Company.
Increased focus on non-Western art and art by minority and female artists.This
edition contains numerous new examples, including paintings (Artemesia
Gentileschis Self-portrait as the Allegory of Painting and Hokusais The Wave),
sculpture (Kara Walkers A Subtlety, or The Marvelous Sugar Baby and Magdalena
Abakanowiczs Bronze Crowd), architecture (the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut,
Egypt), literature (Amy Lowells Venus Transiens and Po Chuis Tang dynasty
poetry), theater (Lin-Manual Mirandas Hamilton), dance (the Batsheva Dance
Company), photography (Berenice Abbott, Nan Goldin, Carrie Mae Weems, Tina
Barney, and Wang Quinsong), film (The Revenant), and television and video art
Four major pedagogical boxed features enhance student understanding of the
genres and of individual works within the genres: Perception Key, Conception Key,
Experiencing, and Focus On.
The Perception Key boxes are designed to sharpen readers responses to the
arts. These boxes raise important questions about specific works of art in
a way that respects the complexities of the works and of our responses to
them. The questions raised are usually open-ended and thereby avoid any
doctrinaire views or dogmatic opinions. The emphasis is on perception and
jac16871_fm_i-xx.indd 14 12/11/17 11:17 AM
awareness, and how a heightened awareness will produce a fuller and more
meaningful understanding of the work at hand. In a few cases our own in-
terpretations and analyses follow the keys and are offered not as the way to
perceive a given work of art but, rather, as one possible way. Our primary
interest is in exciting our readers to perceive the splendid singularity of the
work of art in question.
PERCEPTION KEYChartres Cathedral
1. Form and function usually work together in classic architecture. What visible ex-
terior architectural details indicate that Chartres Cathedral functions as a church?
Are there any visible details that conflict with its function as a church?
2. The two spires of the church were built at different times. Should they have been
made symmetrical? What might be some reasons for their not being symmetrical?
3. What seem to be the primary values revealed by the rose window of Chartres?
4. How did the builders satisfy the fourth requirement of architecture: that the build-
ing be revelatory? What values does the exterior of the building reveal?
5. What is implied by the fact that the cathedral dwarfs all the buildings near it?
We use Conception Key boxes, rather than Perception Key boxes, in certain
instances throughout the book where we focus on thought and conception rather
than observation and perception. Again, these are open-ended questions that
involve reflection and understanding. There is no single way of responding to
these keys, just as there is no simple way to answer the questions.
Our theory of art as revelatory, as giving insight into values, may appear to be
mired in a tradition that cannot account for the amazing developments of the
avant-garde. Is the theory inadequate? As you proceed with this chapter, ask your-
self whether the distinction between art and artlike is valid. How about useful? If
not, what theory would you propose? Or would you be inclined to dismiss theories
Each chapter provides an Experiencing box that gives the reader the opportunity
to approach a specific work of art in more detail than the Perception Key boxes.
Analysis of the work begins by answering a few preliminary questions to make it
accessible to students. Follow-up questions ask students to think critically about
the work and guide them to their own interpretations. In every case we raise
major issues c