PowerPoint 14slides?

***Please include notes to each slide***(14 slides)

Create a PowerPoint presentation for the Sun Coast Remediation research project to communicate the findings and suggest recommendations. Please use the following format:

Slide 1: Include a title slide.

Slide 2: Organize the agenda.

Slide 3: Introduce the project.

. Statement of the Problems

. Research Objectives

Slide 4: Describe information gathered from the literature review.

Slide 5: Include research methodology, design, and methods.

. Research Methodology

. Research Design

. Research Methods

. Data collection

Slide 6:Include research questions and hypotheses

Slides 7 and 8: Explain your data analysis.

Slides 9 and 10: Explain your findings.

Slide 11: Explain recommendations including an explanation of how research-based decision-making can directly affect organizational practices.

Slide 12 and 13: Reflect on your experience throughout the course. Provide some of the things you learned and some of the courses takeaways that you can apply to your current or future job.

Slide 14: Include references for your sources.

Your PowerPoint must be a minimum of fourteen slides in length (including the title slide and a reference slide).

You are required to narrate your presentation. Utilize the note section to write out your transcript per slide. Ensure the presentation you create is your own authentic work. Ensure that you follow APA guidelines and cite any resources you use. For assistance with adding narration to your presentation, please utilize the

Adding Audio to a PowerPoint

instructional document. 1

41

Sun Coasts Research 7

Columbia Southern University

MBA 5652, Research Methods

May 17, 2022

Table of Contents

Introduction 5

Statement of Problems 5

Particulate Matter (PM) 5

Safety Training Effectiveness 6

Sound-Level Exposure 6

New Employee Training 6

Lead Exposure 7

Return-On-Investment 7

Literature Review 7

Particulate Matter (PM) Article 7

Safety Training Effectiveness Article 8

Sound-Level Exposure Article 9

New Employee Training Article 9

Lead Exposure Article 9

Return on Investment Article 10

Research Objectives, Research Questions, and Hypotheses 10

Research Methodology, Design, and Methods 13

Research Methodology 13

Research Design 13

Research Methods 14

Data Collection Methods 14

Sampling Design 14

Data Analysis Procedures 15

Correlation: Descriptive Statistics and Assumption Testing 16

Simple Regression: Descriptive Statistics and Assumption Testing 18

Multiple Regression: Descriptive Statistics and Assumption Testing 20

Independent Samples t Test: Descriptive Statistics and Assumption Testing 23

Dependent Samples (Paired-Samples) t Test: Descriptive Statistics and Assumption Testing 26

ANOVA: Descriptive Statistics and Assumption Testing 30

Data Analysis: Hypothesis Testing 33

Independent Samples tTest: Hypothesis Testing 34

Dependent Samples (Paired Samples) tTest: Hypothesis Testing 35

ANOVA: Hypothesis Testing 36

Findings 37

Recommendations 38

Executive Summary

Sun Coast Remediation Services is plagued with six business problems that can affect employees health and the well-being of the company. They have requested research to solve and better understand the base of their problems. Sun Coast collected data about their concerns but never utilized the information. This research paper aims to provide Sun Coast with requested information that will be beneficial to the company as well as their employees. The paper will include correlation, simple regression, multiple regression analysis. Theory and hypotheses will be tested. Simply, this research paper was completed using quantitative research that will provide reliable results. Findings and recommendations are included.

Introduction

Senior leadership at Sun Coast has identified several areas for concern that they believe could be solved using business research methods. The previous director was tasked with conducting research to help provide information to make decisions about these issues. Although data were collected, the project was never completed. Senior leadership is interested in seeing the project through to fruition. The following is the completion of that project, and includes statement of the problems, literature review, research objectives, research questions and hypotheses, research methodology, design, and methods, data analysis, findings, and recommendations.

Statement of Problems

Six business problems were identified:

Particulate Matter (PM)

There is a concern that job-site particle pollution is adversely impacting employee health. Although respirators are required in certain environments, particulate matter (PM) varies in size depending on the project and job site. PM between 10 and 2.5 microns can float in the air for minutes to hours (e.g. asbestos, mold spores, pollen, cement dust, fly ash), while PM less than 2.5 microns can float in the air for hours to weeks (e.g. bacteria, viruses, oil smoke, smog, soot). Due to the smaller size of PM less than 2.5 microns, it is potentially more harmful than PM between 10 and 2.5 since the conditions are more suitable for inhalation. PM less than 2.5 are also able to be inhaled into the deeper regions of the lungs, potentially causing more deleterious health effects. It would be helpful to understand if there is a relationship between PM size and employee health. PM air quality data have been collected from 103 job sites, which is recorded in microns. Data are also available for average annual sick days per employee per job-site.

Safety Training Effectiveness

Health and Safety training is conducted for each new contract that is awarded to Sun Coast. Data for training expenditures and lost-time hours were collected from 223 contracts. It would be valuable to know if training has been successful in reducing lost-time hours and, if so, how to predict lost-time hours from training expenditures.

Sound-Level Exposure

Sun Coasts contracts generally involve work in noisy environments due to a variety of heavy equipment being used for both remediation and the clients ongoing operations on the job sites. Standard earplugs are adequate to protect employee hearing if the decibel levels are less than 120 decibels (dB). For environments with noise-levels exceeding 120 dB, more advanced and expensive hearing protection is required, such as earmuffs. Historical data have been collected from 1,503 contracts for several variables that are believed to contribute to excessive dB levels. It would be important if these data could be used to predict the dB levels of work environments before placing employees on-site for future contracts. This would help the safety department plan for procurement of appropriate ear protection for employees.

New Employee Training

All new Sun Coast employees participate in general health and safety training. The training program was revamped and implemented six months ago. Upon completion of the training programs the employees are tested on their knowledge. Test data are available for two Groups; Group A employees who participated in the prior training program, and Group B employees who participated in the revised training program. It is necessary to know if the revised training program is more effective than the prior training program.

Lead Exposure

Employees working on job sites to remediate lead must be monitored. Lead levels in blood are measured as micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood (g/dL). A base-line blood test is taken pre-exposure and post-exposure at the conclusion of the remediation. Data are available for 49 employees who recently concluded a two-year-long lead remediation project. It is necessary to determine if blood lead levels have increased.

Return-On-Investment

Sun Coast offers four lines-of-service to their customers, including air monitoring, soil remediation, water reclamation, and health and safety training. Sun Coast would like to know if each line of service offers the same return-on-investment. Return-on-investment data are available for air monitoring, soil remediation, water reclamation, and health and safety training projects. If return-on-investment is not the same for all lines of service, it would be helpful to know where differences exist.

Literature Review

This literature review was obtained by reviewing and analyzing peer-reviewed scholarly articles related to Sun Coast’s six problems. The six problems are particulate matter, safety training effectiveness, sound-level exposure, new employee training, lead exposure, and return on investment. This literature review will provide evidence on how Sun Coast’s problems may directly impact the company and its employees.

Particulate Matter (PM) Article

Walter Crinnion was a pioneer is environmental medicine. According to Crinnion(2017), particulate matter contributes to air pollution and is also a factor in major diseases. Particulate matter (PM) contains solid particles such as smoke and dust. Of great importance, PM absorbs toxic chemicals such as volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which all contribute to their harmful effects. People living in urban areas, especially those working on busy roads, have higher chances of risk from neoplastic disease, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory complications. This position is further supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through its report titled Health and Environmental Effects of Particulate Matter (PM).Evidence shows that the size of particles is linked to effects on health (EPA, 2021). It is beneficial to Sun Coast to understand that particles measuring below 10 micrometers in diameter cause the greatest problems because they can get into the lungs and bloodstream. Exposure to small PM cause premature death, heart attacks, and aggravated asthma.

Safety Training Effectiveness Article

Sinelnikov, Emily, and Alaina (2020) researched to determine the effectiveness of workplace safety training interventions. The authors work with the National Safety Council in Itasca, Illinois. The systematic review involved published articles from 2000 to 2019. According to 22 peer-reviewed journals, training interventions help improve workplace safety. There is strong evidence that training workers positively affect their behavior. The study shows that Sun Coast should train its workers on accident reduction. The safety climate in the company will become positive over time upon implementation of safety training. Safety communication and work pressure improve; this shows the positive impact of training workers on safety. Training interventions should be based on the company’s need sand assessed through safety appraisal processes. Intervention should be embedded into the business procedures and processes.

Sound-Level Exposure Article

Tang, Burlutsky, and Mitchell (2021) conducted a research study to determine workplace noise exposure and the prevalence of age-related hearing loss. These authors are affiliated with the Centre of Vision Research. Their study involved 1923 participants aged above fifty years with occupational noise exposure. Exposure to loud noise for more than ten years increased the chances of hearing loss by 35.5 %. However, prior occupation noise exposure is not associated with the progression of hearing loss. The noise increases the risk of hearing loss in adults. This finding brings attention to the importance of preventive measures Sun Coast could take to reduce noise exposure in the workplace.

New Employee Training Article

Jorgensen is a lean, health, and safety consultant for Vestergaard Company in Denmark. Dyreborg works for the National Research Centre for the Working Environment in Demark. Jorgensen and Dyreborg(2021) explore the importance of induction safety training for 33 workers in the metal work sector. The analysis shows that training new employees are more than giving information about safety. The results point out that safety learning is critical, and workers should be inducted to engage in correct practices at the workplace. Without training, new workers are exposed to risks and injuries. Sun Coast should not only be concerned with new employee training but also focus on continued training of senior employees.

Lead Exposure Article

Lead exposure leads to toxicity, an environmental disease that has devastating effects on the human body. All body functions are affected by lead toxicity. Saleem is affiliated with the Department of Medicine in Pakistan and Qayyum affiliated with Islamic International University, Department of Pathology(2019), the pair conducted a study to determine the effects of lead exposure on children of workers living in lead-contaminated regions. The quantitative study involved 246 children aged between 1 and 6 years living in Pakistan industrial area. The clinic and demographic data of the participants were collected. Blood analysis was conducted, and biochemical tests of the renal profile were analyzed. The children exposed to lead poisoning had high BLLs compared to those living in a clean and lead-free environment. Renal functions were impaired in lead-exposed participants. This means that children living in lead-exposed areas have a high frequency of poisoning.

Return on Investment Article

Workplace injuries and fatalities cost companies millions of dollars. In 2021, according to the Workplace Safety Index, Liberty Mutual approximated that companies pay more than $1 billion per month for workers’ compensation. Moreover, National Safety Council estimated that work-related injuries and deaths cost companies and the nation above $170 billion in 2019(OSHA, 2021). Public health worker Rebecca Masters (2017), conducted a search to identify studies that calculated a ROI for public health interventions in high income countries. Results show that the media for public health interventions was 14.3 to 1 which entails that public health interventions are highly cost-saving.

Research Objectives, Research Questions, and Hypotheses

Within Sun Coast Company, there are some areas of great concern that need to be addressed or resolved to improve the company performance. The problems identified are exposure to particulate matter, safety training effectiveness, exposure to noise, new employee training, lead exposure and return on investment. This study aims at giving the right protection to workers at Sun Coast according to OSHA standards.

RO1: Determine if there is a relationship between PM size and employee health.

RQ1: Is there a relationship between particulate matter size and employee sick days?

H01: There is no statistically significant relationship between particulate matter size and employee sick days.

HA1: There is a statistically significant relationship between particulate matter size and employee sick days.

RO2: Predict lost-time hours from training expenditures

RQ2. Is there a predictive relationship between safety training expenditure and lost-time hours?

H02.There is no statistically significant relationship between safety training expenditure and lost-time hours.

HA2. There is a statistically significant relationship between safety training expenditure and lost-time hours.

RO3: Predict the dB relationship between frequencies, angle in degrees, chord length, velocity, and displacement and the decibel level.

RQ3: Is there a predictive relationship between frequency, angle in degrees, chord length, velocity, and displacement and decibel level?

H03: There is no statistically significant relationship between frequency, angle in degrees, chord length, velocity, and displacement and decibel level.

HA3: There is a statistically significant relationship between frequency, angle in degrees, chord length, velocity, and displacement and decibel level.

RO4: Determine if revised program more effective than the prior program.

RQ4: Is there a difference in the effectiveness of the revised program versus prior program?

H04: There is no statistically significant evidence of the effectiveness of revised program versus prior program.

HA4: There is statistically significant evidence of the effectiveness of revised program versus prior program.

RO5: Determine if employee blood lead levels have increased.

RQ5: Have employee blood lead levels increased from their pre-exposure baseline measurements?

H05: There is no statistically significant difference in employee blood lead levels between pre-exposure and post-exposure.

HA5: There is a statistically significant difference in employee blood lead levels between pre-exposure and post-exposure.

RO6: Determine if there is a difference in return on investment between each line of service.

RQ6: Is there a difference in return on investment between each line of service?

H06: There is no statistically significant connection with return on investment between each line of service.

HA6: There is statistically significant connection with return on investment between each line of service.

Research Methodology, Design, and Methods

Research methodology basically focus on the how you will do research. There are three categories of research methodology: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods. Research design is like a map that will help you find the answers to your research questions. Research methods specifies what procedures will be used based on methodology and design (Creswell, 2017). Below you will find more information on how the research methodology, design and methods will be used to help Sun Coast.

Research Methodology

Sun Coast collected a lot of data and wants it tested. My choices of research methodologies are qualitative which uses words, quantitative uses numbers or mixed methods which are a combination of qualitative and quantitative research. Quantitative research will be used to complete this research. Quantitative research was chosen because there are numbers involved. It can be either experimental or non-experimental. Most importantly quantitative research should be used when a theory or hypothesis needs testing.

Research Design

The research design is descriptive; it aims at establishing a pattern regarding the topic of study. Research design help to establish the relationship between workplace safety and operating cost. The factors to consider include impact of lead exposure, induction training, noise exposure, safety training, and exposure to particulate matter on operating cost. The descriptive nature of the research will help address the research questions and hypothesis. The pattern obtained by the descriptive design will show how the research topic is relevant to workers productivity.

Research Methods

The suitable research method for this topic is correlation and descriptive statistics. Correction method is important explaining the topic. The methods allow two variables to be compared and to develop a conclusion. Descriptive statistics explain how health and safety of the workers is impacted by the six variables. The descriptive statistics will explain how workplace safety is important in influencing productivity.

Data Collection Methods

Data is collected by observation. This involves the researcher making observations on the variables. Observation research technique is flexible (Jensen, 2017). Before undertaking structured research the researcher conducted observations to form research questions. This is the basis of the descriptive research. The data regarding safety and health of workers is used in this research. The data observed are based on workers productivity and the level of safety put in place by Sun Coast Company. Observing the data gives a hint of how the company is operating. The researcher chose observation because of its strong validity. However, there are problems with generalization and reliability.

Sampling Design

Sampling is done using convenience sampling procedure. This method is effective because of accessibility of data needed in the research. There are accessible data sets available and the same is used for sampling. Convenience sampling enables the research topic to be well researched and will help in understanding health and safety in Sun Coast.

Data Analysis Procedures

Sun Coast’s research hypotheses will be tested using a variety of data analysis procedures, including correlation, simple regression, multiple regression, independent samples t-test, paired-samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA.

Correlation will be used to test H01 since the research question is whether relationship exists between the variables of particulate matter size and employee sick days.

Simple-regression analysis will be used to test H02 since the research question is whether there is a predictive relationship between the variables safety training expenditure and lost-time hours. Simple regression is used to predict the dependent variable from a single independent variable.

Multiple-regression analysis will be used to test H03 since the research question is whether a predictive relationship exists between the variables frequency, angle in degrees, chord length, velocity, displacement, and decibel level. Multiple regression is used to predict the dependent variable from two or more independent variables.

Independent samples t-test will be used to test H04 since the research question is whether the revised new employee training program more effective than the prior training program. Independent samples t-test is used to test for statistical differences between two unrelated (independent) means.

Paired samples t-test will be used to test H05 since the research question is whether employee blood lead levels have increased from their pre-exposure baseline measurements. Paired samples t-test is used to test for statistical differences between two related (dependent) means.

One-way ANOVA will be used to test H06 since the research question is whether there are differences in return on investment between air monitoring, soil remediation, water reclamation, and health and safety training? ANOVA is used to test for statistical differences between more than two means.

Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics and Assumption Testing

Correlation: Descriptive Statistics and Assumption Testing

Frequency Distribution Table

Sick days

Frequency

2

1

3

1

4

5

5

13

6

18

7

24

8

18

9

12

10

7

11

2

More

2

Histogram

Descriptive Statistics Table

Mean Annual Sick days per employee

Mean

7.126213592

Standard Error

0.186483898

Median

7

Mode

7

Standard Deviation

1.892604864

Sample Variance

3.58195317

Kurtosis

0.124922603

Skewness

0.142249784

Range

10

Minimum

2

Maximum

12

Sum

734

Count

103

Measurement Scale

The measurement scale used in the above data is ratio scale because the exact values between the data can be determined.

Measure of Central Tendency

The mean, median and mode of the data are identical at 7 implying that the data is perfectly identical.

Skewness and Kurtosis

The skewness of mean annual sick days per employee is 0.142 and is within the range of 0.5 and 1 implying that the data is moderately skewed. On the other hand the kurtosis of the data is 0.1249 and falls within the acceptable region because the curve is not highly picked.

Evaluation

The histogram of the above data is normally distributed and the frequency does not show outliers. The mean, median and more are closely aligned implying normalcy. The skewness and the kurtosis are within the acceptable range of -2 and + 2. The results of the descriptive statistics show that the assumption of the parametric statistics has been met.

Simple Regression: Descriptive Statistics and Assumption Testing

Frequency Distribution Table

.

Lost Time in Hours

Frequency

10

1

35

1

60

9

85

9

110

17

135

18

160

24

185

27

210

37

235

24

260

21

285

15

310

12

335

4

More

4

Histogram

Descriptive Statistics Table

Lost Time in Hours

Mean

188.0044843

Standard Error

4.803089447

Median

190

Mode

190

Standard Deviation

71.72542099

Sample Variance

5144.536016

Kurtosis

-0.501223533

Skewness

-0.081984874

Range

350

Minimum

10

Maximum

360

Sum

41925

Count

223

Measurement Scale

The lost time per member of contract is ratio data because the data can be classified and ordered.

Measure of Central Tendency

The mean, median and the mode of the data is 188.00, 190 and 190 respectively. These values are closely aligned implying the data is normally distributed.

Skewness and Kurtosis

The skewness and kurtosis of the data is within the acceptable region because the values lies between -2 and + 2.

Evaluation

From the descriptive statistics table the three measures of central tendency are close to each other indicating the normalcy of the data. On the other hand the skewness and the kurtosis of the data is within the acceptable range of -2 and + 2 which shows that the data is normally distributed. These results confirm that the assumption of the parametric statistics has been met.

Multiple Regression: Descriptive Statistics and Assumption Testing

Frequency Distribution Table

Decibel

Frequency

103.38

1

104.37

2

105.36

1

106.35

3

107.34

6

108.33

6

109.32

9

110.31

12

111.30

18

112.29

17

113.28

26

114.27

22

115.26

27

116.25

47

117.24

36

118.22

44

119.21

47

120.20

53

121.19

61

122.18

60

123.17

62

124.16

74

125.15

70

126.14

81

127.13

93

128.12

73

129.11

105

130.10

80

131.09

88

132.08

67

133.07

50

134.06

56

135.05

35

136.04

30

137.03

19

138.02

7

139.01

8

140.00

5

More

2

Histogram

Descriptive Statistics Table

Decibel

Mean

124.83594

Standard Error

0.1779447

Median

125.721

Mode

127.315

Standard Deviation

6.8986566

Sample Variance

47.591463

Kurtosis

-0.3141873

Skewness

-0.4189522

Range

37.607

Minimum

103.38

Maximum

140.987

Sum

187628.42

Count

1503

Measurement Scale

The measurement scale of decibel is ratio data because the data has meaningful distance between the data values.

Measure of Central Tendency

The mean, median and mode of the data are closely aligned implying normalcy. The results are shown in the table of descriptive statistics above.

Skewness and Kurtosis

The skewness and the kurtosis of the data is within the acceptable region of -2 and + 2. This indicates that the data is normally distributed.

Evaluation

The skewness and the kurtosis of the data show normalcy since the values lies between -2 and +2. Additionally the mean, median and the mode are closely aligned which is a sign of normal distribution. The normalcy of the data indicates that the assumption of parametric statistics has been met.

Independent Samples t Test: Descriptive Statistics and Assumption Testing

Frequency Distribution Table

Group A Prior to Training

Frequency

50

4

55.86

5

61.71

7

67.57

8

73.43

14

79.29

10

85.14

8

More

6

Group B prior to Training

Frequency

75

2

78.14

5

81.29

10

84.43

12

87.57

14

90.71

11

93.86

5

More

3

Histogram

Descriptive Statistics Table

Group A prior to Training

Mean

69.790323

Standard Error

1.4027881

Median

70

Mode

80

Standard Deviation

11.045564

Sample Variance

122.00449

Kurtosis

-0.776676

Skewness

-0.0867981

Range

41

Minimum

50

Maximum

91

Sum

4327

Count

62

Group B prior to Training

Mean

84.7741935

Standard Error

0.65947889

Median

85

Mode

85

Standard Deviation

5.19274195

Sample Variance

26.964569

Kurtosis

-0.3525379

Skewness

0.14408453

Range

22

Minimum

75

Maximum

97

Sum

5256

Count

62

Measurement Scale

The measurement scale used is ratio because the data can be classified and ordered.

Measure of Central Tendency

The mean, median and mode of group A before training are 69.79, 70 and 80. Since the range of the measure of central tendency is small it indicates that the data is normally distributed. On the other hand, mean median and mode of group B before training is 84.79, 85 and 85. This results shows that there is normality.

Skewness and Kurtosis

Skewness and kurtosis are important statistical tools of measurement that are used determine the distribution of data or the shape of the distribution curve. The skewness and kurtosis of the data for group A is -0.776676 and -0.0867981 respectively. According to George and Mallery, (2018), a normally distributed data will have skewness and kurtosis of -2 and +2. As such the data set is normally distributed because if falls within the acceptable range.

Evaluation

From the descriptive statistics table, the central measure of tendency are closely aligned indicate the normality of the data set. Additionally, the skewness and kurtosis are within the range of -2 and + 2 showing that the data is normally distributed. These results confirm the assumptions of the parametric test were met.

Dependent Samples (Paired-Samples) t Test: Descriptive Statistics and Assumption Testing

Frequency Distribution Table

Pre-Exposureg/DL

Frequency

6

1

13.14

3

20.29

5

27.43

6

34.57

8

41.71

13

48.86

9

More

4

Post-Exposureg/DL

Frequency

6

1

13.14

3

20.29

5

27.43

6

34.57

8

41.71

11

48.86

11

More

4

Histogram

Descriptive Statistics Table

Pre-Exposure g/dL

Mean

32.8571429

Standard Error

1.75230655

Median

35

Mode

36

Standard Deviation

12.2661458

Sample Variance

150.458333

Kurtosis

-0.5760371

Skewness

-0.4251097

Range

50

Minimum

6

Maximum

56

Sum

1610

Count

49

Post-Exposure g/DL

Mean

33.28571429

Standard Error

1.781423416

Median

36

Mode

38

Standard Deviation

12.46996391

Sample Variance

155.5

Kurtosis

-0.654212507

Skewness

-0.483629097

Range

50

Minimum

6

Maximum

56

Sum

1631

Count

49

Measurement Scale

The ratio data has been used because the Return on investment per number of contracts can be classified and ordered.

Measure of Central Tendency

The mean, median and mode of the data are 33.29,36 and 38. The three values are close meaning that the data is normally distributed and there is no skewness.

Skewness and Kurtosis

The skewness and kurtosis of both pre and post exposure data are within the acceptable region because the values fall with the range of -2 and +2 for the skewness and -7 to +7 for the kurtosis.

Evaluation

The data presented in the descriptive statistics indicates normally of the data because, skewness and kurtosis fall within the acceptable range of -2 and +2. Additionally, the measure of central tendency are closely aligned which is a sign of normal data. Therefore the assumptions of the parametric statistics have been met.

ANOVA: Descriptive Statistics and Assumption Testing

Frequency Distribution Table

A=Air

Frequency

3

1

5.75

3

8.5

4

11.25

8

More

4

B=Soil

Frequency

6

1

7.75

2

9.5

10

11.25

5

More

2

C=Water

Frequency

3

1

5.25

5

7.5

8

9.75

2

More

4

D=Training

Frequency

3

1

4.25

3

5.5

7

6.75

6

More

3

Histogram

Descriptive Statistics Table

A=Air

B=Soil

C=Water

D=Training

Mean

8.9

9.1

7

5.4

Standard Error

0.6840

0.3900

0.5758

0.2656

Median

9

9

6

5

Mode

11

8

6

5

Standard Deviation

3.0591

1.7442

2.5752

1.1877

Sample Variance

9.3579

3.0421

6.6316

1.4105

Kurtosis

-0.6283

0.1192

-0.2375

0.2537

Skewness

-0.3608

0.4920

0.7602

0.1592

Range

11

7

9

5

Minimum

3

6

3

3

Maximum

14

13

12

8

Sum

178

182

140

108

Count

20

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August 19, 2022

August 19, 2022

August 19, 2022